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THE 


TELL  EL-AMAMA  TABLETS 


IN   THE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM. 


THE 


TELL  EL-AMARNA  TABLETS 


IN   THE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM 


WITH 


FACSIMILES 


PRINTED   BY   ORDER    OF   THE   TRUSTEES 


M 


SOLD  AT  THE  BRITISH  MUSEUM  ; 

AND      BT 

LONGMANS  &  Co.,  39,  PATEBNOSTEB  Row;    B.  QUARITCH,  15,  PICCADILLY; 

ASHER  &  Co.,  13,  BEDFORD  STREET,  COYEST  GARDEN  : 

KEGAN  PAUL,  TRENCH,  TRUBXER,  &  Co.,  PATERXOSTEB  HOUSE,  CHARING  CROSS  ROAD; 
AND  OXFORD  UNIVERSITY  PRESS,  AMEN  CORNER,  LONDON. 


1892 


SEEN  BY 
PRESERVATION 

SERVICES 


HARRISON  AND  SONS, 

PBINTEBS  IN  OBDINABY  TO  HEB  MAJESTY, 

ST.  MABTIN'S  LANE,  LONDON. 


This  edition  of  the  Tell  el-Ainarna  Cuneiform  Tablets  in  the 
Department  of  Egyptian  and  Assyrian  Antiquities  of  the  British 
Museum  is  the  work  of  Dr.  C.  BEZOLD.  The  Introduction  and 
Summary  have  been  written  jointly  by  Dr.  BEZOLD  and  Dr.  E.  A. 
WALLIS  BUDGE,  Acting  Assistant-Keeper  of  the  Department. 

E.  MAUNDE  THOMPSON, 

Principal  Librarian  and  Secretary. 

BRITISH  MUSEUM, 

16th  February,  1892. 


CONTENTS 


PAGES. 

INTRODUCTION     . .          . .  .  .  .  .  . .  . .  ix-xxiv 

SUMMARY            . .          . .  . .  . .  . .  . .  xxv-lxxxvi 

BIBLIOGRAPHY    . .          . .  . .  . .  .  .  . .  Ixxxvii-xcii 

LIST  OF  TABLETS           . .  . .  . .  . .  . .  xciii,  xciv 

CUNEIFORM  TEXTS         . .  . .  . .  . .  . .  1-141 

LIST  OF  PROPER  NAMES  . .  . .  . .  . .  143-157 

PLATES  Nos.  1-24. 


INTRODUCTION. 


The  collection  of  Cuneiform  Tablets  recently  found  at  Tell  Finding  of  the 

i_  J          TeU  el-Amarna 

el-Araarna  in  Upper  Egypt,  consisted  of  about  three  hundred  tablets. 
and  twenty  documents,  or  portions  of  documents.  The  British 
Museum  possesses  eighty-two,  which  were  purchased  for  the 
Trustees  by  Mr.  E.  A.  Wallis  Budge  in  1888  ;  the  Berlin 
Museum  has  one  hundred  and  sixty,  a  large  number  being 
fragments  ;  the  Gizeh  Museum  has  sixty  ;  and  n  few  are  in 
the  hands  of  private  persons. 

The  discovery  is  said  to  have  been  accidentally  made  by  a 
peasant  woman  when  searching  for  antiquities  in  the  loose  sand 
and  broken  stones  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains  behind  the 
village,  in  which  there  are  several  interesting  rock  hewn  tombs. 

Tell  el-Amarna,  \JyJl   Jj  ,  is  the  modern  Arabic  name  given  site  of 
to  the  village  near  the  ruins  of  the  town,  temple  and  palace  TeU  el"Amarna> 
which  were  built  on  the  right  or  east  bank  of  the  Nile,  about 
ISO  miles  south  of  Memphis,  by  Khu-en-aten  or  Amenophis  IV., 
King  of  Egypt,  about  B.C.  1500.     The  town  was  called  Khu-aten, 

or  Khut-en-aten,   ^  (j  ~^  ,   ^  -  fl  ~^»  ;  the  temple,  Pa-aten, 

a  CD  1    O      a  ITU  1     O    _ 

(1  /V^A-  and  the  palace,  Pa  Khu-en-aten,       (I  ~^~  ^     • 

I     l     O    '  I      i     O      -/-T^o 

With  the  tablets  were  found  :  — 

1.  A  clay  seal  having  two  impressions  of  the  prenomen  objects  found 

e  A  L  •     TTT        /"*  *  ™  i       T^T^  2  with  the  tablets. 

of  Amenophis  I\  . 


1  Lepsius,  Denkmaler,  Abth.  Ill,  Bl.  97  ;  Brugsch,  Diet.  Geog.,  pp.  82,  83. 
On  Jacotiii's  Carte  Topographique  de  I'Egypte  [1821],  Sheet  13,  between  Haggl 

Kandil,  Jjjjj  I.U-?  and  Geziret  el-Tell,  JJJ\   i  j  :->-,  are  marked  the  "Ruines 
(._    ^  j-j   • 

d'une  Grande  Yille  Egyptienue,"  which  must  indicate  the  ruins  of  Khu-en-aten's 
palace. 

2  Now  in  the  Royal  Museum  at  Berlin. 

b 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


2.  Five  square  alabaster  plaques,  inlaid  with  the  pre- 
nomen  and  name  of  Amenophis  III.  in  dark-blue  glazed 
faience.1 


o 


3.  A  light-blue  glazed  faience  plaque,  rounded  at  the  top 
and  inlaid  with  the  names  and  titles  of  Amenophis  III. 
and  his  wife  Thi  in  hieroglyphics  of  dark-blue  faience? 


T 


o 

ti 


Iw 

11 


^  At  f } 


i  CD 


1A§ 

-d  o  i 


Size  of  the 
tablets. 


This  plaque  was  originally  inlaid  in  an  alabaster  tablet 
which  is  now  lost. 

4.  Cover  of  a  vase  or  jar  made  of  stone  resembling  rosso 
antico,  and  carved  to  represent  a  lion  and  a  bull 
fighting,  the  style  of  which  seems  to  indicate  Mesopo- 
tamian  workmanship.2 

The  size  of  the  tablets  in  the  British  Museum  varies  from 
8|  in.  X  4J  in.  to  2^  in.  X  Ifi  in.  ;  the  longest  text  contains 
98  lines,  the  shortest  10. 


1  Now  in  the  Royal  Museum  at  Berlin. 

2  Now  in  the  British  Museum,  Nos.  22,878  and  22,866. 


INTRODUCTION.  XI 

The  greater  number  are  rectangular,  and  a  few  are  oval  ;  Shape. 
and  they  differ  in  shape  from  any  other  cuneiform  documents 
known  to  us.    Some  are  flat  on  both  sides  (cf.  Nos.  6,  25,  26,  44); 
some  are  convex  on  both  sides  (cf.  Nos.  3,  41,  57)  ;  and  some 
are  pillow-shaped1  (cf.  Nos.  28-31,  36,  37,  61). 

In  colour  the  tablets  vary  from  a  light  to  a  dark  dust  tint,  Colour  and 
and  from  a  flesh-colour  to  dark  brick-red.     The  nature  of  the  m 
clay  of  which  they  are  made  sometimes  indicates  the  countries 
from  which  they  come. 

No.  1,  a  draft  of  a  letter  from  Amenophis  III.  to  Kallimma- 
Sin.  is  made  of  finely  kneaded  Nile  mud  ;  Nos.  8-11,  36,  37, 
and  41  are  of  the  dark-red  clay  which  is  met  with  in  the  north 
of  Syria;  five  of  Eib-  Adda's  letters  are  written  upon  the  yellow 
clay  which  is  common  near  the  Syrian  coast  ;2  the  tablets  from 
Shubandi,  Widya,  and  Shuardata  contain  fragments  of  flint.3 

Nos.  10  and  11,  letters  from  Tushratta,  King  of  Mitani,  have  Dockets; 
dockets  which  record  the  date  of  their  arrival  in  Egypt  ;  No.  4,  f3*™  *"*   M 

OJ  *  impressions. 

a  letter  from  Burraburiyash,  bears  on  the  Reverse  an  impression 
of  an  Egyptian  steatite  scarab,  which  probably  formed  the  bezel 
of  a  ring  ;  and  No.  58  has  on  the  Reverse  an  impression 
of  a  Babylonian  cylinder  seal. 

The  writing  on  the  Tell  el-Amarna  tablets  resembles  to  a  Writing. 
certain  extent  the  Neo-Babyloniau,  i.e.,  the  simplification  of  the 
writing  of  the  first  Babylonian  Empire  used  commonly  in 
Babylonia  and  Assyria  for  about  seven  centuries  B.C.  It  possesses, 
however,  characteristics  different  from  those  of  any  other  style 
of  cuneiform  writing  of  any  period  now  known  to  exist  ;  and 
nearly  every  tablet  contains  forms  of  characters  which  have 
hitherto  been  thought  peculiar  to  the  Ninevite  or  Assyrian  style 
of  writing. 

o 

But,  compared  with  the  neat,  careful  hand  employed  in 
the  official  documents  drawn  up  for  the  kings  of  Assyria, 


1  Compare  the  name  given  to  such  tablets  by  the  Arabs  :  j^.  jLss*  "  pillows." 

2  Judging  from  the  colour  of  the  clay  alone,  No.  44  must  belong  to  a  letter 
of  Rib-  Adda. 

3  See  plates  12  and  14. 

'  b2 


Xll 


TELL   EL-AMAIINA   TABLETS. 


Paragraphs 
and  margins. 


Division  of 
words. 


Punctuation. 


Syllabic 
spelling. 


it  is  somewhat  coarse  and  careless,  and  suggests  the  work 
of  unskilled  scribes.  One  and  the  same  hand,  however,  appears 
in  tablets  which  come  from  the  same  person  and  the  same 
place.  On  some  of  the  large  tablets  the  writing  is  bold  and 
free ;  on  some  of  the  small  ones  the  characters  are  confused  and 
cramped,  and  are  groups  rather  of  strokes  than  of  wedges.1 

The  letters  of  Tushratta  2  (Nos.  8-11),  Ammunira(Nos.26,27), 
Akizzi  (Nos.  36,  37),  the  inhabitants  of  Tunip  (No.  41),  Widya 
(No.  52),  Pu-Adda  (No.  56)  and  Labawi  (No.  61)  are  divided 
into  paragraphs  by  straight  lines  drawn  across  the  tablet.  Some 
paragraphs  begin  with  the  word  shanitu,  "  moreover."  On  certain 
of  the  tablets  the  left-hand  edge  is  inscribed  with  one  or  more 
lines  of  writing  which  form  the  end  of  the  document  and  which 
read  from  the  top  of  the  tablet  to  the  bottom  ;  in  letters  found 
at  Kouyunjik  such  lines  read  from  the  bottom  to  the  top. 
A  wide  margin  was  sometimes  allowed  for  such  lines  (see  Nos. 
30,  36,  37). 

In  ordinary  Babylonian  and  Assyrian  documents  the  scribe 
usually  ended  a  line  with  a  complete  word ;  in  the  Tell  el- 
Amarna  tablets  a  break  in  a  word  at  the  end  of  a  line  is  more 
frequent.  Sometimes  the  concluding  portion  of  the  word  is 
carried  over  to  the  beginning  of  the  following  line  ;3  but  more 
generally  it  is  written  immediately  beneath  the  first  part  of 
the  word,  and  is  then  distinguished  by  a  diagonal  wedge,  \ 
or  \  placed  before  it. 

An  attempt  at  punctuation  seems  to  be  indicated  by  the  red 
dots  on  No.  82  (see  p.  Ixxxv). 

The  spelling  is,  with  few  exceptions,  syllabic,  and  compara-' 
tively  few  ideographs  occur.     It  is  often  careless,  and  in  some 
instances  syllables  have  been   omitted.     At  present   it  is  not 
possible  to  say  whether   the   irregular  spelling  is  due   to  the 

1  Nos.  26  and  27  are  examples  of  a  very  remarkable  hand  ;  for  the  peculia- 
rities of  that  on  No.  82,  see  below,  p.  Ixxxv. 

2  In  this  Introduction,  and  in  the  Summary  which  follows,  the  common 
forms  of  proper  names  have  been  adopted  ;  for  exact  transcriptions  see  the  List 
of  Proper  Names  on  pp.  143  if. 

»  No.  4.3,  '.  30  f. ;  No.  47,  1.  5  f. ;  No.  70,  1.  11  f. 


INTRODUCTION.  XI  II 


ignorance  of  the  scribe,  or  to  dialectic  peculiarities  ;  in  either 
case  much  useful  knowledge  concerning  the  grammatical  struc- 
ture of  the  language  is  to  be  gained  therefrom. 

The  Semitic  dialect  in  which  these    letters  are  written  is  Language. 
Assyrian,  and  is,  in  some  important  details,  closely  related  to 
the  Hebrew  of  the  Old  Testament.     The  forms  of  pronouns  are 
particularly  noteworthy. 

A  peculiar  feature  in  these  tablets  is  the  numerous  glosses  Glosses. 
which  occur.     They  are  of  three  kinds,  and  consist  of:  — 

1.  Explanations  of  Sumero-Accadian  ideographs  by  Assyrian 
words  spelt  in  syllables  ;    the  ideograph  coming  first,  and  the 
Assyrian  word  second,  but  separated  from  the  ideograph  by  a 
diagonal  wedge,  e.g.  :  — 

a.  £<yy        ISH       ^        tf?     ~    -yy<f    «pm,  "dust"  (Heb.  -1D5T). 

b.  ff  H«-  A.  MISH  ^         <--        £Y  mi-ma,  "water"  (Heb.  D*D). 

2.  Explanations  of  Sumero-Accadian  ideographsby  Canaanite1 
Avords  spelt  in  syllables  ;  the  ideograph   coming  first,  and  the 
Canaanite  word  second,  but  separated  from  the  ideograph  by  a 
diagonal  wedge,  e.g.  :  — 


a-  ^^   -1!^  KHAR.SAG    ^  $<  <MMf  HflMf  Ma-ar-ri,  "mountain." 

(Heb.  "Ml) 
b-  &8  GAR  *£      ~    -         lalitu    "tile." 


(Syr. 

GISH.MA      \     ^    ^    ^  a-na-'  "ship." 

(Heb.  ^N  or  H^«) 

3.  Explanations  of  Assyrian  words  in  syllables  by  Canaanite 
words  in  syllables,  e.g.  :  — 

«•  CT  zz  -yy^     ^  --yy  <M  ^ 

ra  -  li  -  zi  zu   -  ki  -  ni     ''  prefect."     (Heb.  D 


1  "Canaanite"  is  the  name  which  has  been  given  to  the  native  dialects 
spoken  by  the  vassals  of  Amenophis  in  Syria  and  Palestine.  They  closely 
resemble  the  Hebrew  of  the  Old  Testament.  The  Cauaauite  forms  found  on 

these  tablets  arc  ue\v. 


XIV 


TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


Lax  use  of 
determinatives. 


Dual. 


Ideographs. 


Proper  Names. 


Age  of  the 
tablets,  and 
contents. 


b. 


c. 


li  -        ih  - 


•ir<y 

ri 


EY   '^Y   /*"*~      1    *~£YX    *~< 

*£!     Hff-l     V**         \     *"^'Y     "^ 

su  -  us  -  mi  ya  -      az  -  ku  -  ur  -  mi 

"  let  him  meditate."  (Heb. 

A 


MM-  ul-  lu  "yoke."  (Heb. 

An  instance  of  three  words  in  Assyrian  translated  by  three 
in  Canaanite  is — 

i  -  na  kat  -  ti  -  shu  la  -   di   -  u 

"in  hands  his"  "in  hands  his."  (Heb.  TH^Sl) 

As  compared  with  the  practice  observed  in  other  cuneiform 
documents,  determinatives  and  phonetic  complements  are  care- 
lessly used.  For  example,  the  plural  of  nouns  is  usually  ex- 
pressed by  y^"-,  -^y?  or  «~,  or  by  a  doubling  of  the  ideograph  ;  but 
in  these  tablets  we  find  y«-«-  ^y?,  or  the  doubled  ideograph  plus 
¥"-«-,  or  *-*-  4$0fy.  Usually,  pronouns  are  placed  after  the  sign  for 
the  plural ;  but  in  these  tablets  they  sometimes  come  before  it. 

The  two  wedges,  the  sign  of  the  dual,  which  are  usually 
placed  after  the  noun,  e.g.,  <y^yy  "eyes,"  K^YY  "feet,"  appear  in 
these  tablets  before  the  noun. 

In  compound  ideographs  the  order  of  the  signs  is  sometimes 
inverted,  e.g.,  t-Yfl*  s^Y?  for  s^fy  ^Tyy^,  AT  *rf-  for  *tf-  AT,  4w  ^Su  for 

*~^*^*  ^*y          Ptf* 

Besides  the  Semitic  names,  a  few  are  Egyptian,  e.g., 
Amanappa,  Mani,  Manakhbirya ;  a  few  are  Mitanian,  e.g., 
Tushratta,  Gilu-khipa,  Tatum-khipa ;  and  a  few  are  Kassite, 
e.g.,  Burra-buriyash,  Kuri-galzu,  Kara-dun iy ash,  Kara-indash, 
Shindi-shugab  (?).  The  origin  of  many  names,  e.g.,  Ti'uwatti, 
Itagamapairi,1  Widya,  and  Wyashdata,  is  not  yet  definitely 
ascertained. 

The  documents  were  most  probably  written  between  the 
years  B.C.  1500-1450.  They  consist  of:  A  letter  from  Amen- 
ophis  III.  to  Kallimma-Sin ;  three  letters  from  Burraburiyash 
King  of  Karaduniyash,  to  Amenophis  IV. ;  three  letters  from  the 

1  The  reading  of  many  of  the  proper  names  must  be  considered  as 
tentative.  For  the  complete  list  see  pp.  1 13  ff. 


INTRODUCTION.  XV 

King  of  Alashiya  to  the  King  of  Egypt ;  three  letters  from 
Tushratta,  King  of  Mitani,  to  Amenophis  III. ;  a  letter  from 
Tushratla,  probably  to  Thi,  wife  of  Amenophis  III.  ;  fourteen 
letters  from  Rib- Adda,  governor  of  By  bios,  eleven  of  which  are 
addressed  to  the  King  of  Egypt,  and  three  to  Amanappa,  an 
Egyptian  official ;  two  letters  from  Ammunira  of  Beyrut ;  four 
letters  from  Abi-milki  of  Tyre  ;  fifteen  letters  from  governors 
of  towns  in  Phoenicia  and  Syria ;  twenty-seven  letters  from 
governors  of  towns  in  Palestine  ;  eight  letters  from  governors 
of  towns  the  positions  of  which  are  unknown ;  and  a  part 
of  a  mythological  text  referring  to  the  goddess  Irishkigal. 

They  give  an  insight  into  the  nature  of  the  political  relations  Historical 
which  existed  between  the  kings  of  Western  Asia  and  the  kings  value- 
of  Egypt,  and  prove  that  an  important  trade  between  the  two 
countries    existed   from  very  early  times.      They   also   supply 
information  concerning  offensive  and  defensive  alliances  between 
the  kings  of  Egypt  and  other  countries,   commercial  treaties, 
marriage  customs,  religious  ceremonies,  and  intrigues,  which  has 
been  derived  from  no  other  source. 

They  offer  a  new  field  for  the  researches  of  the  geographical 
student,  and  promise  important  results.  The  identification  of 
many  towns  and  countries  mentioned  in  the  Bible  and  in 
Egyptian  inscriptions  has  already  been  obtained. 

In  addition  to  facts  which  they  record  concerning  the  general 
condition  of  Western  Asia  and  Egypt,  they  give  us  for  the  first 
time  the  names  of  Artatama,  Artashumara,  and  Tushratta,  Kings 
of  Mitani,  and  of  Kail im(?)rna- Sin,  King  of  Karaduniyash. 

The  dialect  in  which  these  letters  are  written  is  of  special  Philological 
interest  for  Semitic  philology,  as  it  affords  a  new  proof  that  the  value- 
age  of  a  Semitic  dialect  cannot  be  altogether  judged  from  the 
state  of  the  development    of  its  grammatical  forms.      It  also 
supplies  a  number  of  new  words  and  forms,  and  exhibits  peculiar 
grammatical  constructions,    the  existence  of  which  has"  been 
hitherto  unsuspected,   and  which  have  a  close  affinity  to  the 
language  of  the  Old  Testament.     On  this  account  they  will  be 
regarded  as  of  the  highest  value  in  the  study  of  Hebrew. 


XVI 


TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


The  conquest 
of  Western  Asia 
by  the 
Egyptians. 


Amenophis  I., 
B.C.  1666. 

Thothmesl., 
B.C.  1633. 


Thothmes  II., 
Hatshepset. 


Thothmes  III., 
ac.  1600. 


The  Egyptians  appear  to  have  gained  their  first  foothold  in 
Syria  under  Ahmes  or  Amasis  I.,  the  first  king  of  the  XVIIIth 
dynasty,  about  B.C.  1700. 

He  brought  to  a  successful  close  the  war  of  independence 
against  the  Hyksos  rule  which  had  been  commenced  by  the 
Theban  kings  of  the  XVIIth  dynasty,  and  captured  Avaris, 
,  the  chief  stronghold  of  the  Hyksos  in  the  east  of  the 

He  followed  up  his 
(a  city 


CD 


Delta,  and  drove  them  from  the  country. 

victory  by  marching   upon    Sharhan,    T$T 

to  the  south  of  Gaza,  and  mentioned  in  Joshua  xix.  6),  in  the 

fifth  year  of  his  reign  ;  but  he  was  not  strong  enough  to  advance 

further  into  Syria. 

Amenophis  I.  made  war  upon  the  Aamu-Kehak,  or  Asiatics, 
but  he  undertook  no  campaign  in  Syria  or  Mesopotamia. 

Thothmes  I.,  the  first  great  warrior  and  conqueror  of  the 
XVIIIth  dynasty,  after  subduing  the  Nubians  and  other  nations 
to  the  south  of  Egypt,  advanced  to  the  conquest  of  Palestine, 
Syria  and  Mesopotamia.1  In  northern  Syria  or  Ruthen  he  set 
up  a  tablet  to  record  his  victories  and  to  mark  the  limit  of  the 
frontier  of  Egypt. 

During  the  reign  of  Thothmes  II.  no  expedition  to  Mesopo- 
tamia is  recorded  ;  but  it  is  probable  that  the  people  conquered 
by  his  father  continued  to  pay  tribute.  The  princes  of  Ruthen 
appear  to  have  remained  the  vassals  of  Egypt  during  the  reign 
of  Queen  Hatshepset.  Upon  the  wall  of  a  room  in  the  temple  of 
Der  el-Bahari  is  painted  a  scene  in  which  she  receives  the  tribute 
of  Ruthen.2  Her  famous  expedition  to  Punt  could  never  have 
been  sent  out  had  any  powerful  enemy  of  Egypt  been  actively 
hostile. 

Shortly  after  Tbothmes  HI.  ascended  the  throne,  a  rebellion 
broke  out  which  extended  from  Sharhan  to  the  Euphrates.  He 

N 

Neharina  =  the  country  called 


1  In  Egyptian      ,—  , 

i  U    -.  ., 

")K.  "  Aram  of  the  two  rivers,"  in  Genesis  xxiv.  10  ;  the  ^»>OTJ  /US,  or 

jZo'JOU  AAQ  of  the  Syriac  writers;  and  t.j\s>-  of  the  Arabs. 

2  Diimichen,  Historische  Inschri/ten,  II,  pi.  14. 


INTRODUCTION.  XVII 

at  once  set  out  to  crush  the  rebels,  and  marching  by  the  way  of 
the  Peninsula  of  Sinai  reached  the  loyal  city  of  Gaza  in  a  few 
days.  He  there  learned  that  Megiddo  \vas  in  the  hands  of  the 
Prince  of  Kadesh  ;  sixteen  days  later  the  two  armies  joined 
battle  ;  the  rebels  were  defeated  and  Megiddo  was  captured. 
In  the  23rd  year  of  his  reign  the  princes  of  Ruthen  and 
Mesopotamia  paid  tribute  to  him,  and  he  received  as  his  wife 
the  daughter  of  the  prince  of  Ruthen.  This  seems  to  have 
been  the  beginning  of  the  custom  of  Egyptian  kings  to  take 
wives  from  the  royal  houses  of  the  nations  whom  they  con- 
quered. His  example  was  followed  by  Amenophis  III.,  who 
married  several  princesses  from  Mesopotamia  ;  by  Rameses  II., 
who  married  a  princess  of  the  Cheta  ;  and  by  Rameses  XII., 
who  married  a  princess  of  Bechten. 

During  the  24-30th  years  of  his  reign  Thothmes  captured 
Tunip,  where  he  established  the  worship  of  the  gods  Amen  and 
Harmachis  ;  Aradus,  Tyre,  Kadesh  on  the  Orontes,  and 
Carchemish. 

In  the  33rd  year  of  his  reign  he  set  up  a  tablet  at  Ruthen, 
near  that  of  Thothmes  L,  mentioned  above,  and  another  at  Ni, 
a  town  on  the  Euphrates.  He  also  received  tribute  from  the 
Cheta  and  other  powerful  nations. 

His  last  great  campaign,  against  the  powerful  league  of  the 
kings  of  Kadesh,  Tunip,  Arantu,  etc.,  took  place  in  the  41st 
year  of  his  reign. 

In  the  Tell   el-Amarna  tablets   Thothmes   III.1    is    named 


Manakhbirya  =  Men-cheper-Ra,  f  o  r^\  g  J  of  the  Egyptian 
inscriptions,  and  his  institution  of  the  worship  of  Amen  and 
Harmachis  at  Tunip  seems  to  be  referred  to  in  a  letter  from 
the  people  of  this  city,2  probably  to  Amenophis  IV.,  in  which 
they  claim  his  protection  as  Thothmes  III.  had  protected  them, 
and  because  the  gods  of  the  two  countries  are  the  same. 

The  lists  of  countries  and  cities  subdued  by  this  king  in 
Palestine,  Syria,  and  Mesopotamia,  which  are  engraved  on  the 
walls  of  the  temple  of  Karnak,  together  with  the  Tell  el-Amarna 

1  See  p.  Ixx.  '*  No.  41  ;  see  below,  p.  Ixxi. 


XVlll  TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

tablets,  afford  the  means  of  identifying  a  considerable  number  of 
cities  in  Western  Asia. 

Amenophis  IL,  In  Ruthen  Amenophis  II.  slew  seven  kings,  and  took  their 
bodies  to  Egypt ;  six  were  hung  up  at  Thebes,  and  one  in  Napata 
in  Nubia.  He  marched  as  far  as  Ni  on  the  Euphrates,  where  he 
was  well  received. 

Thothmes  IV.,  Thothmes  IV.  is  said  to  have  conquered  all  his  foes  from  the 
far  south  of  Nubia  to  Mesopotamia  on  the  north,  but  no  details 
of  his  expeditions  are  forthcoming. 

Amenophis  III.,  Amenophis  III.,  the  son  of  Thothmes  IV.,  was  not  a  great 
conqueror  like  his  grandfather ;  but  the  Egyptian  monuments 
state  that  he  subdued  Kadesh,  Tunip,  Sankar,  Carchemish, 
and  north-western  Mesopotamia.  His  expeditions,  however,  to 
these  countries  partook  more  of  the  nature  of  triumphal  pro- 
gresses than  of  wars :  lion -hunting  in  those  parts  being 
apparently  one  of  the  chief  attractions.  Several  large  steatite 
scarabs  state  that  he  slew  one  hundred  and  two  lions  with  his 
own  hand  during  the  first  ten  years  of  his  reign. 

Wives  of  From  the  Tell  el-Amarna  tablets  we  learn  that  besides  Thi, 

Amenophis.  .  .  . 

the  Mesopotamian  princess  whose  arrival  in  Egypt  in  the  10th 
year  of  his  reign  is  mentioned  on  a  scarab,1  Amenophis  III. 
married  at  least  five  other  ladies  from  various  parts  of  Western 
Asia.  From  the  first  tablet  in  our  series  it  appears  that 
he  had  already  married  a  sister  and  a  daughter  of  Kallimma- 
Sin,  King  of  Karaduniyash,  a  country  probably  lying  to  the 
north-east  of  Syria,  and  that  he  was  renewing  a  proposal  for 
another  daughter  named  Sukharti  (i.e.,  "little  one").  He  had 
originally  made  the  proposal  when  Sukharti  was  a  child,  and 
negotiations  had  consequently  to  be  delayed  until  she  had 
grown  up,  when  Kallimma-Sin  himself  informed  him  of  the  fact. 
The  tablets  numbered  8,  9  and  10  prove  that  from  the 
house  of  Shutarna,  son  of  Artatama,  King  of  Mitani,  Amenophis 
married  two  ladies,  viz.,  Gilukhlpa,  the  sister  of  Tushratta,2  son 

1  The  text  is  published  by  Brugsch  in  <<Eg.  Zeits.,  1880,  p.  82. 
8  He  succeeded  to  the  throne  of  Mitani  after  the  death  of  his  brother, 
Artashumara,  who  had  been  murdered  by  rebels. 


INTRODUCTION.  XIX 

of  Shutarna,  and  Tatumkhipa,  Tushratta's  daughter.  Of  the 
latter  no  mention  is  made  in  the  Egyptian  inscriptions ;  but  it 
is  stated  on  the  scarab  mentioned  above  that  Gilukhipa, 
"  xx  /?>C  $'  KiWllya->  the  daughter  of  Shutarna,  the  Prince  of 
Mesopotamia,  was  brought  to  His  Majesty  together  with  three 
hundred  and  seventeen  of  the  first  ladies  of  her  train."  *  The 
Tell  el-Amarna  tablets  show  that  Tushratta  frequently  sent 
gifts  to  his  sister  and  daughter  with  the  letters  which  he  sent 
to  his  son-in-law  Amenophis. 

Neither  Gilukhipa  nor  Tatumkhipa  was  acknowledged 
"  Queen  of  Egypt,"  this  honour  being  reserved  solely  for  the 
lady  Thi,  or  Tii,  (l^\\^jL  who,  as  already  stated,  had  become 
the  wife  of  Amenophis  in  the  10th  year  of  his  reign.  Her 
father's  name  was  luaa,  0  0  y  u  *K^  V&  >  ar>d  her  mother's 
s=>  ^\  (1  ^£\  Jj  ,  Thuaa.  It  is  not  stated  that  she  was  the 
daughter  of  royal  parents,  but  the  frequent  occurrence  of  her 
name  on  scarabs,  rings,  vases,  amulets  and  other  objects  bears 
testimony  to  the  unusual  position  and  influence  of  this  queen. 
The  tomb  of  a  Queen  Thi,  who  is  described  as  "  royal  daughter,  Thi,  Queen  of 
royal  sister,  royal  mother,  royal  wife,  great  lady,  lady  of  the Egypt> 
North  and  South," 2  was  opened  early  in  this  century  at  Thebes. 
There  is  little  doubt  that  it  was  the  tomb  of  the  chief  wife 
of  Amenophis.  The  portrait  of  this  lady  3  represents  her  with 
a  fair  complexion  and  blue  eyes  ;  the  colour  of  her  skin  is 
that  of  natives  of  north-eastern  Syria.  Thi  was  the  mother  of 
Amenophis  IV.  She  also  gave  birth  to  a  daughter,  Set- Amen, 


1  j\~~()(l~~  -J^.  f  I  p   ^ 

anit  en    hen-f  an^  ut'a  senb      set       ur     en          Neherna 


Satharna  Kilkipa  tep        en  ^enr^     ~     s  317 

2  Brag-sch,  Recueil  de  ^fonuments  Eyyptiens,  ii,  63,  1. 

3  Rosellini,  Monument i  Storici,  pi.  19,  No.  21. 

c-2 


XX 


TELL   EL-AMABNA   TABLETS. 


Babylonian 

ofTml 
and  Thi. 


Museum  possesses  a  blue-glazed  faience 

_ 

stibium  tube2  and  a  double  wooden  stibium  tube3  inscribed 
witb  the  names  of  Amenophis  and  Thi.  They  probably  formed 
part  of  the  toilet  service  deposited  in  the  tomb  for  the  Queen's 
use. 

Queen  Thi's  name  appears  in  the  Tell  el-Amarna  tablets  4 
in  the  form  of  ^  ^T  t£  eft,  Ti-i-i;  Amenophis  III.  is  named 
Mimmuriya,  Nimmuriya,  and  Immuriya,  each  form  representing 
in  Babylonian  the  king's  prenomen  Neb-Mat-Ra  ^^Z7^Qj.  Tn 
the  forms  Mimmuriya  and  Nimmuriya  we  have  the  interchange 
of  the  letters  M  and  N,  which  is  common  in  the  Semitic 
languages.5  It  has  been  assumed  that  the  name  Mimmuriya 
is  that  of  Thothmes  IV.,  because  in  a  tablet  in  Berlin  (No.  23), 
from  which  the  name  of  the  person  addressed  is  broken  off,  and 
which  is  supposed  to  have  been  written  to  Amenophis  III., 
mention  is  made  of  "  Mimmuriya,  thy  father."  There  is, 
however,  no  reason  for  the  assumption  that  the  tablet  was 
addressed  to  Amenophis  III.  ;  on  the  contrary,  the  following 
extract  6  from  it  proves  that  it  was  written  to  Amenophis  IV.  :  — 
The  writer,  Tushratta,  says  :  "  Khamashshi,  the  envoy  of  my 
brother  [the  King  of  Egypt],  hath  informed  me  of  the  contents 

1  As  recorded  in  an  inscription  on  a  fragment  of  wood,  used  for  inlaying1, 
now  in  the  British  Museum,  No.  5899a.  Amenophis  had  two  other  daughters, 
Auset  and  Hentmerheb. 

a  No.  25726,  Fourth  Egyptian  Room,  Northern  Gallery,  Case  E. 

a  No.  2598a,  Fourth  Egyptian  Room,  Northern  Gallery,  Case  E. 

4  Berlin  Collection,  No.  23,  rev.  line  54;  No.  24,  obv.  lines  3,  8,  9,  45,  46, 
61,  63,  66;  rev.  lines  13,  30,  49bfa,  93. 

*  See  Wright,  Comparative  Grammar  of  the  Semitic  Languages,  p.  67  ; 
Bondi,  Dem  Hebraisch-Phonizischen  Sprachzweige  ange/iorige  Lehnworter,  p.  42  ; 
Barth,  Zeits.f.  Assyr.,  Vol.  II,  pp.  Ill  ff.  ;  Vol.  IV,  pp.  374  ff. 

•  L.  37.  <HUJ  f  [?]?<  T?  *  <T 


38. 


T- 


4  (the  Bei<lin 


has 


I  N  TROD  UCTIOX  .  X  X  I 

of  my  brother's  despatch,  and  I  have  understood  them.  And 
now,  I  say  that  just  as  I  was  in  friendship  with  Mimmuriya 
thy  father,  so  also  will  I  be  more  than  ten  times  more  so 
with  Napkhurriya.  Thus  did  I  speak  to  Khamashshi,  thy 
messenger.''  It  is  certain  that  Napkhuriya  is  the  Babylonian 
form  of  the  prenomen  of  Amenophis  IV.,  Nefer-cheperu-Ra, 
(  °  I  f$  !  1  >  an(l  it  is  equally  certain  that  by  Mimmuriya  is  meant 
his  father,  and  not  his  grandfather.  Moreover,  the  occurrence 
in  the  Berlin  Tablet  No.  24,  which,  it  is  admitted,  is  addressed 
to  Araenophis  IV.,  of  a  reference  to  the  messenger  Khamashshi, 
is  a  proof  that  both  it  and  Tablet  No.  23  are  contemporaneous. 
It  is  quite  evident  from  paragraphs  II  and  III  of  Tablet  No.  9 
of  our  series,  as  will  be  seen  on  referring  to  the  Summary  at  the 
end  of  this  Introduction,  that  Tushratta  only  ascended  the 
throne  of  Mitani  after  Amenophis  had  begun  to  reign  in  Egypt, 
and  on  this  account  he  specially  asks  him  to  continue  to  himself 
the  friendship  which  he  bore  to  his  predecessor  Shutarna.  In 
this  tablet  the  King  of  Egypt  is  named  Ni-ib-mu-a-ri-ya,  and 
in  No.  10,  Ni-im-mu-ri-ya  ;  both  of  which  forms  represent  the 
Egyptian  Neb-Mat-Ra,  i.e.,  Amenophis  III.  Moreover,  No.  10 
bears  a  hieratic  docket  stating  that  the  tablet  was  brought  to 
Egypt  in  the  36th  year  of  the  king,  who  must  have  been 
Amenophis  III.;  for  Thothmes  IV.,  according  to  the  testimony 
of  all  the  authorities,  including  the  monuments,  reigned  less 
than  ten  years.  In  Tablet  No.  8  the  king's  name  appears  as 
Mimmuriya  (or  Irnmuriya),  and  internal  evidence  shows  that 
it  was  addressed  to  the  same  person  as  Nos.  9  and  10.  Finally, 
in  Tablet  No.  11  the  Queen  of  Egypt  is  quoted  as  styling  her 
husband  Mimmuriya,  and  apparently  as  referring  to  Napkhurriya 
(Amenophis  IV.)  as  his  son. 


T-     ^o  tro  ty  <HH]T  T?  SfcT  Hf-  J!   T?  ~4  T  W<  T?  -f  <T- 

3T^T  "IdF  *^ffit  ^  u  Kha-a-mash-shi  mar-shipri-shu  sha  akhi-ya 
pa-za-du  a-iia  mukhi-ya  il-li-gu  u  pa-za-du  sha  akhi-ya  a-ma-ti-shu  ik-bu-u-ma 
ish-mu-u  u  a-ka-an-na  ak-tu-bi  ki-i-mi  i  it-ti  Mi-mu-ri-ya  a-bi-ka  ar-ta-na-'- 
a-mu-nii  u  i-na-an-ua  X-SHU  it-ti  Xa-ap-khur-ri-ya  ar-ta-na-'-am-mi  danni.s(is) 
u  a-ka-an-ua  a-na  Kha-a-uiasb'shi  mar.shipri-ka  ak-ta-bi. 


XXli  TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

AmenophislV.         Amenophis  II  I.  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Amenophis  IV.,  or 
orKhu-en-Ateu,  Khu-en-aten,  who  is  commonly  known  as  the  "  heretic  king." 

B.C.  1466. 

His  reign  was  comparatively  short,  extending  to  about  twelve 
years.  Although  the  peoples  of  Syria  and  Ethiopia  paid  him 
tribute,  his  hold  upon  those  countries  cannot  have  been  firm. 
Soon  after  the  beginning  of  his  reign  he  publicly  seceded  from 
the  worship  of  Amen,  the  great  god  of  Egypt,  and  endeavoured 
to  supersede  the  old  religion  of  the  country  by  the  worship  of 
Aten  or  the  disk  of  the  Sun.  His  hatred  of  Amen  was  so 
excessive  that  he  changed  his  name  from  Amen  -  hetep 
(Amenophis)  to  Khu-en-Aten  (i.e.,  "the  splendour  of  Aten"), 
and  erased  the  name  of  the  god  from  the  walls  of  temples  and 
other  public  buildings.  His  attempts  to  alter  the  worship  of 
the  country  were  vigorously  opposed  by  the  priesthood,  and  in 
the  end  he  was  compelled  to  withdraw  from  Thebes.  He  retired 
to  a  spot  about  180  miles  above  Memphis  on  the  Nile  and  built 
there  an  entirely  new  town,  temple,  and  palace  (see  above,  p.  ix), 
in  which  he  lived  with  his  mother,  his  wife,  and  his  seven 
daughters.  After  his  death  the  town  seems  to  have  been  for- 
saken and  shunned,  and  no  buildings  were  erected  on  or  near 
its  site.  The  plan  of  the  streets  can  be  distinctly  traced  to 
this  day.  The  portraits  of  Amenophis  on  the  monuments  are 
frequently  caricatures  ;  he  is  represented  with  receding  fore- 
head, thick  lips,  protruding  chin,  round  shoulders,  and  pendulous 
belly.  They  afford  proof,  if  any  is  required,  that  Khu-en-Aten 
and  Amenophis  IV.  are  one  and  the  same  person.  Some 
scholars  have  suggested  that  he  was  a  eunuch,  and  some  that 
he  was  a  woman. 

In   the   Tell   el-Amarna   tablets   Amenophis   IV.    is   called 
Napkhurriya  =  Nefer-cheperu-Ra,  the  first  portion  of  his  pre- 


nomen     oJ^i^O^     Nefer-cheperu-Ra  ua-en-Ra.     According  to 


Tablet  No.  3  he  gave  one  of  his  daughters  in  marriage  to 
the  son  of  Burraburiyash,  King  of  Karaduniyash.  His  father 
Amenophis  III.  refused  to  entertain  the  proposal  of  Kallimma- 
Sin,  King  of  Karaduniyash,  to  marry  an  Egyptian  princess, 
haughtily  replying  that  "  the  daughter  of  the  King  of  the  land 


INTRODUCTION.  XX111 

of  Egypt  hath  never  been  given  to  a  *  nobody.' '''  It  is  probable 
that  Burraburiyash  was  a  more  powerful  king  than  his  pre- 
decessor, and  had  grown  strong  as  the  Egyptian  power  waned  in 
Western  Asia,  and  could  therefore  better  claim  such  an  alliance. 

A  large  number  of  the  present  tablets  are  addressed  to  Decline  of 
"  the  King  of  Egypt,"  either  Amenophis  III.  or  Amenophis  IV. 
Nearly  all  of  them  consist  of  reports  of  disasters  to  the 
Egyptian  power  and  of  successful  intrigues  against  it,  coupled 
with  urgent  entreaties  for  help,  pointing  to  a  condition  of  dis- 
traction and  weakness  in  Egypt.  That  some  may  have  been 
addressed  to  Amenophis  III.,  probably  in  his  declining  years, 
may  be  inferred  from  the  fact  that  the  despatches  of  the 
governor  of  Katna  (Nos.  36,  37)  to  that  king  are  couched  in  a 
similar  strain  ;  but  it  is  probable  that  most  of  them  belong  to 
the  next  reign,  and  reflect  the  troubles  which  we  know  resulted 
from  the  struggle  between  Amenophis  IV.  and  the  old  priesthood. 

The  most  graphic  details  of  the  disorganized  condition,  and 
of  the  rival  factions,  of  the  Egyptian  dependencies  lying  on 
the  coast-line  of  Phoenicia  and  northern  Palestine,  are  to  be 
gathered  from  a  perusal  of  the  despatches  of  the  governors  of 
the  cities  of  Byblos,  Beyrut,  and  Tyre. 

Kib-Adda,  of  Byblos,  reports  the  revolt  of  almost  the  whole 
district  under  his  command ;  the  successes  of  his  rivals  Abd- 
Ashirta  and  his  active  son  Aziru ;  the  loss  of  the  ships  of 
Sumuru,  Beyrut,  and  Sidon,  and  the  capture  of  his  own  ship ; 
above  all,  the  siege  and  capture  of  the  important  northern  city 
of  Sumuru,  or  Simyra,  which  commanded  the  road  to  Aradus. 
Beyrut  has  fallen  (No.  17)  and  the  enemy  are  closing  in  upon 
Byblos.  Appeal  follows  appeal  for  help ;  but  the  King  of 
Egypt  is  indifferent  and  unmoved.  Rib-Adda's  enemies  include 
members  of  his  own  household,  but  he  still  protests  his  un- 
swerving loyalty,  and  only  in  his  despair  does  he  threaten  to 
abandon  the  city  and  renounce  his  fealty  to  the  Egyptian  king. 

Ammunira,  of  Beyrut  (Nos.  26,  27),  takes  the  other  side. 
He  had  repulsed  Rib- Adda's  appeals  for  help  (No.  16),  and 
perhaps  it  was  on  this  account  that  the  latter  had  reported 


XXIV  TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

Beyrut  as  lost,  meaning  that  it  was  in  the  hands  of  one  of  the 
adverse  faction.  Now  Ammunira  denounces  Rib- Adda  as  the 
oppressor  of  the  King  of  Egypt's  officials  (apparently  referring 
to  Abd-Ashirta  and  Aziru  and  others  of  his  faction) ;  and  he  is 
watching  the  men  of  Byblos  until  he  shall  learn  the  king's 
pleasure.  Abd-Ashirta  himself  appears  in  the  correspondence 
with  a  letter  (No.  33)  protesting  his  loyalty. 

Abi-milki,  governor  of  Tyre,  belongs  to  the  party  of  Rib- 
Adda  (Nos.  28-31).  His  appointment  to  his  government  had 
been  the  signal  for  his  enemies  to  attack  him  ;  and  Zimrida, 
governor  of  Sidon,  through  whose  agency  (whether  by  force  or 
guile)  Sumuru  had  fallen,  now,  with  the  assistance  of  Aziru  and 
the  men  of  Arvad,  or  Aradus,  lays  siege  to  the  island-fortress  of 
Tyre,  first  capturing  Sazu  on  the  mainland  and  thus  cutting  off 
Abi-milki's  supply  of  wood  and  water.  The  last  that  we  hear 
of  the  unhappy  governor  is  his  withdrawal  from  Tyre,  apparently 
in  disgust  at  being  superseded ;  and  we  may  infer  that,  in  the 
end,  the  whole  of  the  littoral  between  Sidon  and  Aradus  passed 
into  the  power  of  the  faction  led  by  Abd-Ashirta  and  Aziru. 

Origin  of  The  details  of  the  worship  of  the  Disk  which  Amenophis  IV. 

Sun-worship      tried  ^  ^^^{^  are  unknown,  and  the  Tell  el-Amarna  tablets 

in  .hgypt 

give  us  no  information.  A  point  of  interest,  however,  concern- 
ing the  religion  of  Egypt  is  brought  out  in  No.  36,  in  which 
Akizzi,  governor  of  Katna,  when  applying  to  Amenophis  III. 
for  means  to  ransom  the  "  Sun-god  of  Egypt,"  which  had  been 
carried  off  by  the  people  of  Khatti,  declares  that  Shamash,  the 
Sun-god,  the  god  of  his  fathers,  became  also  the  god  of  the 
ancestors  of  Amenophis,  and  that  they  called  themselves  after 
his  name.  This  evidently  has  reference  to  the  title  "  son  of 
the  Sun  "  which  was  adopted  by  nearly  every  king  of  Egypt, 
and  indicates  that  Akizzi  believed  that  the  worship  of  the  Sun 
was  introduced  into  Egypt  from  Asia. 

In  the  following  Summary  translations  of  passages  have 
been  made  as  literal  as  possible,  but  some  of  the  renderings 
are  necessarily  free. 


SUMMARY  OF  THE  CONTENTS  OF  THE  TABLETS. 


1. — Letter  from  Amenophis  III.,  King  of  Egypt,  to  Kallimma(?)- 
Sin,  King  of  Karaduniyash.1 

This  document  is  of  more  than  ordinary  interest,  being  the  only 
known  letter  of  Amenophis  III.  in  the  Babylonian  language  and 
writing,2  and  being  addressed  to  a  king  who  has  become  first  known 
to  us  by  the  Tell  el-Amarna  tablets.  Kallimma-Sin3  is  probably  to 
be  placed  in  the  gap  which  occurs  in  the  list  of  Babylonian  kings 
immediately  preceding  Kara-indash,  especially  as  his  name  is  clearly 
Babylonian  and  not  Kassite.  He  probably  belongs  to  the  fourth 
dynasty  of  Berosus,  who  describes  it  as  "  Chaldean."* 

The  letter  begins  : — "  To  Kallimma-Sin,  King  of  Karaduniyash, 
my  brother,  thus  saith  Amenophis,  the  Great  King,  the  King  of 
Egypt,  thy  brother  :  '  I  am  well,  may  it  be  well  with  thee,  with  thy 
government,  with  thy  wives,  with  thy  children,  with  thy  nobles, 
with  thy  horses,  and  with  thy  chariots,  and  may  there  be  great 
peace  in  thy  land ;  with  me  may  it  be  well,  with  my  government, 
with  my  wives,  with  my  children,  with  my  nobles,  with  my  horses, 
with  my  chariots,  and  with  my  troops,  and  may  there  be  great  peace 
in  my  land." 

1  Northern  Babylonia,  conterminous  with  Assyria. 

2  A  tablet,  at  Gizeh  (B.,   No.    10),   written  in  the  cuneiform  character,  in  an 
unknown  language,  appears  to  be  a  despatch  from  Amenophis  III.  to  Tarkhundaradush, 
King  of  Arsapi;   but  some  scholars  maintain  that  Amenophis   III.  is  the  person 
addressed,  and  not  the  writer. 

s  A  letter  of  Kallimma(?)-Sin  to  Amenophis  III.  is  preserved  at  Gizeh-(B.,  No.  1), 
another  is  at  Berlin  (B.,  No.  2),  aud  a  third  seems  to  be  that  which  forms  No.  3  of 
the  Berlin  Collection. 

4  See  Gutschmid,  Beitrage  zur  Geschichte  des  alien  Orients,  1858,  p.  20. 

d 


XX  vi  TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 

Amenophis  then  states  that  he  has  understood  the  words  of  the 
despatch  concerning  Sukharti,1  daughter  of  Kallimma-Sin,  which  her 
father  has  sent  to  him.  He  appears  to  have  asked  the  hand  of  this 
lady  in  marriage,  and  Kallimma-Sin  had  replied,  "  Thou  wishest  for 
my  daughter  to  wife ;  but  from  the  time  when  my  father  gave  thee 
my  sister  to  wife,  no  man  hath  seen  her,  and  none  knoweth  whether 
she  be  alive  or  dead,"  implying  that  he  was  not  prepared  to  send  his 
daughter  Sukharti  to  Egypt  until  he  was  well  assured  that  her  aunt, 
his  own  sister,  was  alive  and  was  being  treated  in  a  manner  befitting 
the  wife  of  the  King  of  Egypt.  With  the  despatch  containing  the 
extract  here  quoted  by  Amenophis,  Kallimma-Sin  had  sent  mes- 
sengers, viz.,  Rika,  son  of  Zakara,  and  other  high  officials,  to  bring 
back  news  of  his  sister.  Referring  to  this  embassy,  Amenophis  now 
replies  that  none  of  its  members  was  personally  acquainted  with 
Kallimma-Sin's  sister,  as  they  were  not  old  enough  to  remember  her 
marriage,  which  had  taken  place  during  the  lifetime  of  Kallimma- 
Siri's  father  ;  and  he  recommends  him  to  send  a  wise  man2  who  was 
personally  acquainted  with  his  sister  and  had  conversed  with  her, 
and  who  would  thus  be  able  to  recognize  and  speak  with  her. 

Then  follows  a  break  in  the  text  (7  lines). 

Kallimma-Sin  had  also  referred  to  the  conversation  which  the 
Egyptian  king  had  held  with  his  messengers,  and  to  the  orders 
which  he  had  given  to  his  wives  thnt  they  should  assemble  and 
appear  before  them,  and  he  had  informed  Amenophis  that  his  mes- 
sengers had  failed  to  recognize  his  sister,  the  queen,  from  among  the 
other  ladies  who  stood  before  them.  In  reply  to  this,  Amenophis 
now  writes,  "  Since  thou  sayest,  '  My  messengers  cannot  identify 
her,'  I  answer,  '  Then  who  can  identify  her  ? '  and  I  ask  further, 
'  Why  dost  thou  not  send  a  wise  man  who  might  give  thee  a  trust- 
worthy account,  and  describe  to  thee  the  comfort  and  good  health  of 
thy  sister  here  V  Command,  then,  one  of  thy  wise  men  to  come  and 
examine  her  household,  and  let  him  see  for  himself  the  honour  in 

1  /.c.,  "  Little  one." 

J  Tlio  Babylonian  word  is  ££££  ka-ml-rum ;  compare  the  word  105  ,  a  name 
given  by  the  Hebrews  to  a  heathen  piiest. 


SUMMARY    OF    CONTENTS.  XXV11 

which  she  is  held   by   the  king," — in  fact,  repeating  what  he  had 
already  said  in  the  earlier  part  of  the  letter. 

Kallirama-Sin  also  had  written  to  the  effect  that,  although  his 
messengers  had  seen  the  wives  of  the  king  assembled  before  them, 
and  although  a  certain  woman  had  been  pointed  out  to  them  as  his 
sister,  it  was  impossible  for  them  to  be  sure  that  she  was  not  a 
native  of  the  land  of  Gagaya,  or  of  Khanigalbi,1  or  of  Ugarit ;  and 
he  had  asked  :  who  was  there  that  could  truthfully  assure  them  that 
the  woman  was  his  sister  ?  or  who  was  there  upon  whom  they  could 
rely  to  tell  them  truthfully  if  she  were  dead  or  alive  ?  Most  unfor- 
tunately the  lines  of  text  which  gave  the  comments  of  Amenophis 
upon  this  extract  are  broken,  but  the  few  words  which  remain  here 
and  there  seem  to  indicate  that  he  appealed  to  Amen,  the  great  god 
of  Egypt,  to  bear  witness  to  the  truth  of  his  words,  and  that  he 
assured  Kallimma-Sin  that  "  kings  of  the  land  of  Egypt "  were  not 
wont  to  act  deceitfully. 

Referring  to  the  matter  of  the  bestowal  of  his  daughter's  hand, 
Kallirnma-Sin  had  stated  that  it  was  his  custom  to  give  his  daughters 
in  marriage  to  the  "  kings  of  Karaduniyash,"  and  that  the  messengers 
who  took  them  to  their  future  homes  were  treated  with  generous 
hospitality,  and  that  handsome  gifts  were  sent  back  to  him  in  their 
hands  by  the  husbands'  relatives.  Amenophis  replies  that  whatever 
the  great  kings  and  nobles  of  Karaduniyash  may  possess  and  are 
willing  to  give  to  Kallimma-Sin  as  dowries  for  his  daughters,  he  not 
only  possesses,  but  is  willing  to  give,  far  more  than  they  all ;  nay  ! 
he  is  even  prepared  to  send  Kallimma-Sin  a  gift  in  honour  of  his 
sister  who  is  now  living  in  Egypt  with  him.  He  also  says  that  he 
will  not  discuss  the  words  spoken  by  his  father  (Thothmes  IV.), 
which  Kallirnma-Sin  had  quoted,  and  he  asks  that  they  may  be 
forgotten,  especially  as  he  wishes  for  "brotherhood"  to  be  maintained 
between  the  houses  of  Egypt  and  Karaduniyash.  This  last  obser- 
vation is  a  reply  to  Kallimma-Sin's  words:  "Now  let  us  two  be 
brethren,"  and  following  this  up,  the  Egyptian  king  announces  that  he 
has  sent  his  messenger  to  make  a  commercial  treaty,  the  chief  points 

1  Usually  read  Klanirabi.  This  country  was  situated  near  Lake  Van.  See 
Xorris,  Assyrian  Diet.,  Vol.  II,  p.  435. 

c/2 


XXVlil  TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

of  which  seem  to  be  as  follows  : — Any  Mesopotamian  travelling  in 
Egypt  with  merchandize  shall  pay  certain  duties  to  the  King  of 
Egypt,  and  should  the  traveller,  whether  a  trader  or  otherwise, 
refuse,  the  duty  shall  be  exacted  by  force.  Among  the  articles  upon 
which  duty  shall  be  levied  are  mentioned  gold,  silver,  oil,  clothing, 
and  other  objects  of  value. 

The  mutilated  condition  of  the  text  of  lines  71-77  makes  it  im- 
possible to  give  a  connected  rendering  of  them,  but  it  appears  that 
Amenophis  complains  that  the  first  and  second  company  of  messen- 
gers who  came  to  Egypt  from  Mesopotamia  made  false  reports  on 
their  return  home. 

When  Amenophis  applied  for  the  hand  of  Kallimma-Sin's  daughter 
Sukharti,  he  appears  to  have  demanded  a  contingent  of  Mesopotamian 
soldiers  also.  Kallimma-Sin  had  replied  that  "  he  had  no  soldiers," 
and  that  "  his  daughter  Sukharti  was  not  beautiful."  To  this 

O 

Amenophis  now  answers  that  he  knew  that  "  these  words  were  not 
the  words  of  Kallimma-Sin,"  and  that  he  believed  that  "  the  Meso- 
potamian messengers  had  spoken  falsely";  there  is  no  one  of  whom 
to  make  enquiries  whether  Kallimma-Sin  has  soldiers,  or  not,  or 
whether  the  chariots  and  horses  which  bring  the  messengers  are  his, 
or  not ;  but  in  any  case  he  advises  Kallimma-Sin  not  to  believe  the 
reports  of  his  returning  messengers,  as  they  are  afraid  of  him, 
and  they  lie  concerning  the  King  of  Egypt.  Kallimma-Sin  must 
have  previously  asked  that  certain  chariots,  and  horses,  and  officers, 
whom  he  sent  to  Egypt  should  be  returned,  for,  referring  to  them, 
Amenophis  says  that  "  they  had  been  seen  by  no  man";  Kallimma- 
Sin  may  have  sent  them  to  the  frontier  of  his  own  territory,  but  in 
Egypt  they  had  certainly  not  been  seen.  The  chariots  and  horses 
which  are  in  Egypt  belong  to  himself.  The  chariots  which  have 
recently  arrived  he  intends  to  load  with  oil,  and  to  send  them  back 
to  Mesopotamia  under  the  charge  of  Rika. 

The  concluding  lines  of  the  letter  repeat  the  request  that 
Kallimma-Sin  will  send  his  daughter  Sukharti  to  Egypt. 

[In  a  tablet  preserved  at  Berlin  (No.  3,  1.  27)  it  appears  that 
Kallimma-Sin  had  stated  that  Amenophis  had  had  no  children  by 
his  daughter  whom  he  had  already  given  to  the  Egyptian  king,  and 


SUMMARY   OF   CONTEXTS.  XX IX 

hence  it  would  appear  that  Amenophis  had  not  only  married  Kallimma- 
Sin's  sister,  but  also  one  of  his  daughters,  before  he  asked  for  the 
•\  o unger  daughter  Sukharti.  In  the  same  letter  he  refers  to  a  former 
request  to  Amenophis  that  he  would  give  him  an  Egyptian  princess 
to  wife,  and  quoting  the  Egyptian  king's  answer  :  "  The  daughter  of 
the  King  of  the  land  of  Egypt  hath  never  been  given  to  a  '  nobody/  " 
he  asks,  "  Why  not  ?  Thou  art  king  and  canst  act  as  thou  pleasest; 
and  if  thou  wilt  give  [her  to  me],  who  shall  say  a  word  [against  it]  ? 
When  these  words  were  reported  to  me  I  wrote  again,  saying,  '  Surely 
there  be  daughters  of  nobles  (?)  who  are  beautiful  women  [in  Egypt]. 
Now,  if  thou  knowest  a  beautiful  lady,  I  beseech  thee  to  send  her 
unto  me  ;  for  who  here  could  say  that  she  is  not  a  princess  ? '  But  if 
thou  wilt  not  send  such  an  one,  then  dost  thou  not  act  as  a  friend 
and  brother  should.  Now  even  as  thou,  because  we  are  connected 
with  each  other,  hast  written  unto  me  concerning  a  marriage  [with 
my  daughter],  so  because  of  our  brotherhood  and  friendship,  and 
because  we  are  connected,  have  I  also  written  unto  thee  concerning 
a  marriage  [with  thy  daughter].  Why  has  not  my  brother  sent  me 
a  wife  ?  Inasmuch  as  thou  hast  not  sent  me  a  wife,  in  like  manner 
will  I  do  unto  thee,  and  will  hinder  any  [Mesopotamian]  lady  from 
going  into  Egypt." 

Notwithstanding  his  indignation,  Kallimma-Sin  proceeds  forth- 
with to  discuss  the  matter  of  a  loan  of  a  quantity  of  gold,  which, 
however,  he  really  intends  should  be  a  dower  for  his  daughter ;  and 
he  asks  that  it  may  reach  him  during  the  months  of  Tarn  muz  and 
Ab  (i.e.,  the  latter  half  of  June,  the  month  of  July,  and  the  first  half 
of  August),  during  the  period  of  harvest,  for  he  wishes  to  pay  to  the 
temple  the  completing  part  of  an  offering  which  he  has  vowed. 
If  Ameuophis  cannot  send  him  the  gold,  to  reach  him  by  the  time 
stated,  what  good  is  there  in  his  sending  it  at  all  ?  For  what  use  can 
he  find  for  gold  when  the  work  for  which  it  is  intended  is  all  over 
and  done  ?  If  Amenophis  should  send  even  three  thousand  talents 
of  gold  when  the  work  is  done,  he  will  not  accept  it,  but  will 
return  it,  and  will  conclude  that  henceforth  all  question  of  the 
marriage  of  the  King  of  Egypt  with  his  daughter  is  at  an  end. 
What  answer  Amenophis  made  to  this  letter,  or  whether  he  sent  the 


XXX  TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 

gold  or  not,  is  unknown  ;  but  some  satisfactory  arrangement  must 
have  been  arrived  at,  for,  from  a  tablet  preserved  at  Gizeh  (B.,  No.  1), 
we  learn  that  Kallimma-Sin  afterwards  wrote  to  Amenophis  saying  : 
"  With  reference  to  thy  request  that  my  daughter  Sukharti  be  given 
to  thee  to  wife,  my  daughter  Sukharti  hath  now  come  to  the  age  of 
puberty  and  may  be  married  ;  if  thou  wilt  write  unto  me,  she  shall  be 
brought  unto  thee."  Thus  it  appears  that  Amenophis  "contracted 
affinity  "  with  several  of  the  kings  of  Mesopotamia  by  marrying  their 
daughters  and  sisters.] 

The  present  tablet  is  probably  a  copy  of  the  despatch  which  was 
actually  sent  to  Mesopotamia ;  written  by  a  native  of  Mesopotamia, 
maintained  at  the  court  of  Amenophis  as  the  official  scribe  for  such 
correspondence.  If  it  be  not  a  copy,  it  must  be  the  original  which, 
for  some  reason  or  other,  was  never  sent. 

2. — Letter  from  Burraburiyash,1  King  of  Karaduniyash,  to 
Amenophis  IV.,  probably  soon  after  he  became  King  of  Egypt. 

This  letter,  which  is  one  of  the  most  important  of  the  British 
Museum  series,  begins  by  stating  that  Burraburiyash  is  himself  in 
good  health,  and  he  hopes  that  Amenophis,  and  his  wives  and  children 
are  also  in  good  health,  and  that  his  country  and  army  and  govern- 
ment are  in  a  prosperous  condition.  In  days  gone  by  their  fathers 
were  agreed  in  friendship,  and  used  to  accept  and  return  each 
other's  gifts,  without  any  definite  feeling  of  obligation.  Amenophis 
had  recently  sent  him  a  gift  of  two  manehs  of  gold,  but  this  is  a 
much  smaller  quantity  than  his  father  Amenophis  III.  was  wont  to 
send.  Burraburiyash  entreats  him  to  send  at  least  the  half  of  what 
his  father  used  to  send,  and  asks  why  so  little  as  two  manehs  has 
been  sent.  To  account  for  his  urgency,  he  explains  that  he  has 
promised  to  contribute  largely  to  the  support  of  the  temple  of  the 
god  of  his  native  land,  a  promise  which  he  is  bound  to  carry  out ; 
he  begs  that  Amenophis  will  send  "  much  gold,"  and  in  return  he 
promises  to  send  him  anything  that  he  wishes  for  of  the  productions 
of  his  land.  He  next  reminds  Amenophis  that  in  the  days  of  his 

1  Four  letters  of  this  king  are  preserved  at  Berlin  (Nos.  4,  6-8). 


SUMMARY    OF   CONTEXTS.  XXXI 

father  Kurigalzu  the  Canaanites  sent  a  messenger  inviting  him  to 
join  them  in  an  invasion  of  Kannishat,  a  district  under  the 
suzerainty  of  Egypt ;  but  that  Kurigalzu  declined  to  make  any 
league  with  them,  and  sent  their  messenger  away  with  an  answer 
that,  if  they  induced  any  other  king  to  join  them  in  an  attack  upon 
the  possessions  of  the  King  of  Egypt  "  his  brother,"  he  would  go 
forth  against  them  in  battle.  Kurigalzu  formed  this  resolution  after 
consultation  with  Burraburiyash  his  son.  Burraburiyash  continues 
that  he  had  sent  to  Amenophis  accounts  of  the  recent  proceedings 
of  the  Canaanites  by  the  hands  of  a  trusty  Assyrian  messenger,  and 
claims  that  it  is  not  his  fault  that  the  Canaanites  had  actually 
invaded  Egyptian  territory  in  Mesopotamia.  He  begs  Amenophis 
to  remember  that,  as  long  as  there  is  an  offensive  and  defensive 
alliance  between  them,  the  Canaanites  are  powerless  to  do  much 
harm  and  may  be  easily  driven  off.  To  disarm  the  wrath  of  the 
Egyptian  king,  he  sends  him  three  manehs  of  lapis-lazuli  and  five 
pairs  of  horses  for  five  wooden  chariots.1  The  invasion  here  referred 
to  appears  to  have  been  one  of  the  periodic  migrations  usual  among 
all  nomad  tribes  in  Mesopotamia,  when  seeking  pasturage  and  water 
for  their  cattle. 


3. — Letter  from  Burraburiyash,  King  of  Karaduniyash,  to 
Amenophis  IV.,  King  of  Egypt. 

After  the  usual  salutations,  Burraburiyash  refers  to  the  amicable 
relations  which  existed  between  Karaindash,  a  former  King  of  Kara- 
duniyash, and  the  father  of  Amenophis  in  days  of  old,  and  he  hopes 
that  these  relations  may  be  continued.  He  complains,  however,  that 
the  messengers  of  the  King  of  Egypt  have  come  to  him  three  times 
in  succession  without  bringing  any  gift  with  them,  and  he  will 
therefore  send  no  gift  to  Amenophis.  He  adds,  "  If  thou  hast 
nothing  of  value  for  me,  then  have  I  nothing  of  value  for  thee."  He 
next  complains  that  the  messenger  who  was  sent  to  him  from  Egypt 
with  twenty  manehs  of  gold  did  not  deliver  them ;  five  appear  to 
have  been  offered,  but  these  Burraburiyash  refused  to  accept.  Re- 

1  It  is  probable  that  these  chariots  were  made  of  a  special  kind  of  wood. 


XXxii  TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 

peating  the  hope  that  peace  may  exist l  and  wax  old  between  Egypt 
and  Karadurriyash,  Burraburiyash  seems  to  propose  to  send  certain 
gifts  to  Egypt,  in  return  for  which  he  expects  to  receive  chariots, 
which  his  messenger  Shindishugab  will  bring  back.  In  conclusion 
he  hopes  that  their  messengers  may  travel  together  as  in  days  of  old, 
and  he  sends  two  manehs  of  lapis-lazuli  as  a  gift  for  Amenophis, 
and  various  presents  for  "  thy  daughter,  the  wife  of  my  son."  The 
fact  that  a  daughter  of  Amenophis  IV.  was  married  to  a  Mesopo- 
tamian  prince  is  new,  and  is  of  considerable  interest ;  whether 
this  prince  was  Karakhardash,  who  succeeded  his  father  on  the 
throne  of  Karaduniyash  in  the  time  of  Ashur-uballit,2  King  of 
Assyria,  cannot  at  present  be  decided.  As  appears  above  (p.  xxix), 
Kallimma-Sin  was  refused  by  Amenophis  III.  the  hand  of  one  of  his 
daughters,  as  "The  daughter  of  the  King  of  the  land  of  Egypt  hath 
never  been  given  to  a  '  nobody.' ''  It  would  seern  then  that  Burra- 
buriyash must  have  been  an  independent  king,  while  Kallimma-Sin 
was  a  "  sh&kh  "  of  comparatively  little  importance. 

4. — Letter  from  Burraburiyash,  King  of  Karaduniyash,  to 
Amenophis  IV. 

This  tablet  is  much  mutilated  ;  three  of  its  four  corners  are 
wanting,  and  several  of  the  signs  which  remain  are  nearly  effaced. 
Line  17  of  the  Obverse  is  continued  across  the  Reverse,  which  is 
almost  blank.  At  the  bottom  left-hand  corner  of  the  Reverse  is  the 
impression  of  a  scarab,  or  the  bezel  of  a  ring,  which  was  inscribed 
with  the  hawk  of  Horus  wearing  the  crowns  of  the  North  and 
South,  g^,  the  disk  of  the  sun,  Q,  a  winged  uraeus,  and  other  signs 
the  impressions  of  which  are  wanting. 

After  the  usual  salutations,  Burraburiyash  states  that  he  has 
heard  that  the  King  of  Egypt  possesses  fair  palaces,  and  that  he  is 
preparing  to  send  back  with  Shutti,8  an  officer  of  Amenophis,  fair  gifts 
for  his  fair  palaces,  consisting  of  an  ivory  and  gold  throne,  wood  and 

1  With  line  21  a  break  in  the  text  begins,  and  it  is  uncertain  how  many  lines  are 
wanting  at  the  end  of  the  Obverse  and  the  beginning  of  the  Reverse. 

1  A  letter  of  this  king  to  Amenophis  IV.  is  preserved  at  Gizeh  (B.,  No.  9). 
'  Thjs  .name  is  probably  Egyptian. 


ST7MMAEY    OF   CONTENTS.  XXX111 

gold  thrones,  and  a  number  of  golden  objects,  the  weights  of  which 
are  specified  in  manehs  and  zfizu.     These  gifts  probably  formed  part 
f  the  dowry  of  the  daughter  of  the  Egyptian  king  who  was  about 
to  "  contract  affinity  "  with  the  royal  house  of  Karaduniyash. 

5.  —  Letter  from  the  King1  of  Alashiya  to  the  King  of  Egypt.* 
The  name  of  the  country  of  Alashiya  has  not  hitherto  been  found  in 
any  cuneiform  document  except  the  Tell  el-Amarna  tablets  ;  in  which, 
however,  it  is  spelt  \A  ft  -£T  <T-  ££W  Alashiya,  or  V  ft  -ET  ^TT  ^ 
Alasiya.  In  the  Egyptian  inscriptions  a  city  fl  jj  <==>  $  \  [J^ 
Alesa  is  mentioned  pretty  often  ;  and  it  is  most  probable  that  the 
Egyptian  Alesa  and  the  Assyrian  Alasiya  are  one  and  the  same 
town  or  city  or  district.  A  country  called  O^^-2^1  Asale, 

*  I  c-L    I       I      r^/^i 

mentioned  in  British  Museum  Papyrus  No.  10,247,  p.  23,  1.  6 
(Select  Papyri,  pi.  57),  was  thought  by  Chabas  (Voyage,  p.  225) 
to  be  another  form  of  fl  [o1  I  Alesa;  and  Maspero  (Recueil, 


t.  x,  p.  210)  is  of  the  same  opinion.  In  1.  49  of  the  present  tablet, 
the  King  of  Alashiya  seems  to  refer  to  the  countries  of  Khatti  and 
Shankhar  as  if  they  were  neighbouring  tributary  states.  If  this  be 
the  case,  Alashiya  was  probably  situated  to  the  west  or  south-west 
of  Tunip  and  Aleppo,  and  sufficiently  near  them  to  be  able  to 
supply  a  contingent  of  men  to  the  great  league  of  cities  of  Northern 
Syria,  which  lost  no  opportunity  of  rebelling  against  the  kings  of 
Egypt.  In  the  Egyptian  inscriptions  the  general  position  of  Alesa 
and  the  cities  mentioned  in  connexion  with  it  is  sufficiently 
indicated,  and  it  may  without  much  hesitation  be  assumed  that  by 
the  names  Alesa  and  Alashiya,  the  Egyptian  and  Babylonian  writers 
indicated  the  same  country.  In  the  annals  of  Thothmes  III.  and 
Amenophis  III.  no  mention  appears  to  be  made  of  Alesa,  but  during 
the  reign  of  Eameses  II.  it  is  certain  that  the  people  of  Alesa 
included  among  their  allies  the  inhabitants  of  a  number  of  cities  to 
the  south-east  and  south-west  and  west  of  Aleppo  ;  for  in  the  list  of 
the  conquered  peoples  of  Northern  Syria  drawn  up  for  that  king 

1  The  name  of  this  king  is  unknown. 

1  Probably  Anienophis  III.  or  his  son  Amenophis  IV. 


XXXIV  TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

(see  Denkmiiler,  Abth.  iii,  Bl.    131)    the  names  of  Neherni  (Meso- 

/wwv*  <_— ^  .  r\     s>    <=-—-.>     f  AA^V\,\   <-— ^ 

potamia)    i-r-i  '    ^V^A,  Alesa  [I  jj         W&ZA  and  banker t  ^  |  ^      <=> 

(Denkmdler,  Abth.  iii,  Bl.  145a)  are  grouped  together.  The  King  of 
Alashiya  states  in  his  letters  that  he  sends  as  gifts  to  the  King  of 
Egypt  bronze,  wood,  oil,  and  horses  ;  and  British  Museum  Papyrus 
No.  10,249  (Anastasi  IV.),  pp.  16,  11.  2-4;  18,  11.  8-10  (Select 
Papyri,  pll.  96  and  98)  mentions  as  products  of  Alesa  and  the 
neighbouring  countries  horses,  unguents,  cows,  etc.  There  appears 
to  be  little  doubt  as  to  the  identity  of  the  countries.  That  the 
Egyptians  believed  Alesa  to  be  the  same  country  as  that  called 
Alashiya  by  the  Babylonians  we  know  from  the  hieratic  docket 
written  upon  one  of  the  Tell  el-Amarna  tablets  preserved  at  Gizeh 
(B.,  No.  12)  and  inscribed  with  a  letter  of  the  King  of  Alashiya,  the 
transcript  of  which  reads  LU~n  ^^  ~vw^  w)  v{a  ~*~^  (1  *ta  "^  >  ttf  |  t^i  shdt 

d  I  IJj   rl  I    i— A  I  I        I 

en  ser  en  Alesa,  "  Letter  of  the  prince  of  Alesa." 

The  present  letter  begins  :  "  To  the  King  of  Egypt,  his  brother, 
thus  saith  the  King  of  Alashiya,  his  brother  :  '  I  am  well,  and  it  is 
well  with  my  government,  with  my  wife,  with  my  children,  with 
my  nobles,  with  my  horses,  and  with  my  chariots,  and  in  my  ter- 
ritories is  great  peace.  And  with  thee,  0  my  brother,  and  with  thy 
government,  with  thy  wives,  with  thy  children,  with  thy  nobles,  with 
thy  horses,  with  thy  chariots  and  with  thy  territories  may  it  also  be 
well."  The  King  of  Alashiya  next  announces  that  he  sends  his  own 
messenger  to  accompany  the  messenger  of  the  King  of  Egypt,  and  also 
that  he  sends  500  pieces  of  bronze  as  a  gift  to  "  his  brother  "  the 
King  of  Egypt,  praying  him  not  to  be  offended  because  of  the 
small  quantity,  as  the  "  hand  of  Nergal,"  i.e.,  the  pestilence,  had 
killed  all  the  people  of  his  land  and  it  was  not  possible  to  continue 
the  manufacture  ;  therefore  let  him  not  "  take  it  to  heart."  He 
then  begs  the  King  of  Egypt  to  send  the  two  messengers  back  to 
him  as  soon  as  possible,  and  promises  to  send  him  in  the  future  as 
much  bronze  as  he  may  wish  ;  in  return  he  asks  for  a  large  amount 
of  silver  of  which  he  is  in  need  to  make  a  contribution  to  the  temple 
of  his  gods,  and  he  offers  to  send  to  Egypt  whatever  Amenophis  may 
wish  for.  He  also  sends  by  the  hand  of  his  messenger  an  ox,  and 


SUMMARY    OF    CONTEXTS.  XXXV 

two  measures  of  choice  oil,  for  which  Amenophis  had  asked,  and 
accompanying  them,  also,  as  a  gift,  runners  "  swifter  than  eagles." 

The  meaning  of  the  next  paragragh  is  not  clear,  but  it  appears  to 
refer  to  some  horses  and  chariots  which  had  become  the  property  of 
the  King  of  Egypt. 

In  the  following  paragraph  the  king  states  that  one  of  his 
subjects  died  in  Egypt,  where  he  left  property,  and,  as  his  wife  and 
son  live  in  Alashiya,  he  asks  Amenophis  to  have  the  property 
collected  and  to  send  it  back  to  the  relatives  of  the  deceased  by  the 
hands  of  the  Alashiyan  messenger.  About  three  years  before  an 
Egyptian  messenger  had  arrived  in  Alashiya,  and  having  remained 
there  some  time  was  unable,  through  the  pestilence,  to  leave  the 
country.  The  King  of  Alashiya  now  begs  the  Egyptian  king  not  to 
take  this  amiss,  and,  making  the  severity  of  the  epidemic  an  excuse 
for  the  Egyptian  official's  delay,  points  out  that  his  own  palace  had 
been  attacked,  and  that  the  child  to  which  the  queen  had  recently 
given  birth  had  fallen  a  victim  to  the  disease.  Repeating  his 
request  that  Amenophis  will  send  the  money  and  the  property  of 
the  dead  Alashiyan,  the  king  begs  him  not  to  make  any  treaty  or 
league  with  the  Kings  of  Khatti ]  and  Shankhar,2  and  promises  that 
whatever  gifts  they  may  send  to  him  he  will  pass  on  to  the 
Egyptian  king,  together  with  the  addition  of  a  like  amount  from 
himself.  The  idea  of  the  King  of  Alashiya3  is,  apparently,  to 

1  This  country  has  often  been  identified  with  the  Egyptian  ^JP  Cheta. 

f     /vwv\A  «yl  y\  \  J-J       f^^-H 

-  A  country  called  ^          C  ^  <cr>  Sankar.  situated  near  Cheta  and 

I     III         _cr\»       I       r\/^/i 

n  *^?>  0x    *5  xx    ^ 

Alesa  and  (I  ^p  "ti^l  <c:::>  '  Amdure,  is  mentioned  in  the  Egyptian  inscriptions, 
and  probably  represents  the  country  called  Shankhar  by  the  Babylonians.  Sankar 
was  famous  for  its  fine  horses,  c/8  °  (iJ^S^bvvjn'^X^T  ^^  t=^ 

*n     -^^ tk       xx      ^    *<=>ii'"      1*011*1110°  II I 

^iiiiii'^m^pJ*  (RM-  Papyrus  No-  10'249'  P-  18'  L  9)-   The 

orthography  of  Shankhar  is  precisely  the  same  as  that  of  the  Hebrew  ~yy?  Shinar, 
the  name  having  possibly  shifted  in  process  of  time  from  the  eastern  frontier  of 
Babylonia  to  the  Singar  hills,  adjoining  the  country  of  the  Khatti.  The  horses  of 
the  desert  south  of  the  hills  are  still  famous.  It  may  be  conjectured  that  the  site 
of  Alashiya  was  near  Kharran,  but  the  name  is  not  to  be  recognized  in  the 
geography  of  the  district. 

3  Four  letters  of  the  King  of  Alashiya  are  preserved  at  Berlin  (B.,  Xos.  11, 13,  15, 
16),  and  three  (?)  at  Gizeh  (B.,  Nos.  12,  14,  17  (?)). 

e  2 


XXXVI  TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

prevent  Amenophis  from  opening  up  any  direct  communication  with 
his  own  neighbouring  friends  and  allies. 

In  the  last  paragraph  the  king  appears  to  say  that  he  has  given 
his  messenger  full  power  (?)  to  act  on  his  behalf,  and  that  he  hopes 
that  the  Egyptian  king  will  do  likewise. 

6. — Letter  from  the  King  of  Alashiya  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

After  salutations,  he  complEiins  that  the  Egyptian  messenger 
did  not  come  into  his  presence.  He  is  anxious  to  hear  if  Amenophis 
is  angry  with  him,  and  in  his  uncertainty  he  sends  a  special 
messenger  and  with  him  one  hundred  talents  of  bronze.  Previously 
he  had  sent  to  Egypt,  by  the  hands  of  an  Egyptian  messenger,  a 
wooden  couch  plated  with  gold,  a  chariot  decorated  with  gold,  two 
horses,  garments,  precious  stones,  oil,  etc. 

Here  follow  eighteen  lines  so  mutilated  that  it  is  impossible  to 
give  a  connected  rendering  of  them.  But  it  appears  that  several 
of  the  gifts  were  lost  on  their  way  to  Egypt. 

After  this  break,  the  text  seems  to  refer  to  a  wish  on  the  part  of 
the  King  of  Alashiya  to  make  arrangements  for  the  transport  of 
merchandize,1  and  to  the  passage  of  the  Egyptian  and  Alashiyan 
messengers  in  safety.  He  complains  that,  while  he  sends  to  Ameno- 
phis everything  that  he  wishes  for  from  his  country,  Amenophis 
gives  him  nothing  in  return,  although  he  has  been  in  the  habit  of 
sending  gifts  to  the  Egyptian  king  ever  since  he  ascended  the 
throne. 

7. — Letter  from  the  King  of  Alasiya  [Alashiya]  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

After  the  usual  salutations,  he  announces  the  despatch  to  Egypt 
of  a  gift  consisting  of  five  talents  of  bronze  (?)  and  five  pairs  of 
horses,  etc.  He  has  sent  the  messenger  of  the  Egyptian  king  back 
to  his  country  quickly,  and  he  prays  that  Amenophis  will  send  back 

1  Compare  the  commercial  treaty  proposed  by  Amenophis  III.  to  Kallimma-Sin, 
King  of  Karaduniyash  (see  pp.  xxvii,  xxviii).  On  a  tablet  at  Gizeh  (B.,  No.  12, 
11.  14  ff.),  the  King  of  Alashiya  introduces  his  merchant  (tamgar)  to  Amenophis  by 
letter. 


SUMMARY    OF   CONTENTS.  XXXV11 

the  Alashiyan  messenger  with  equal  speed  ;  if  he  needs  any  further 
gifts  and  will  write  them  on  a  tablet,  they  shall  be  sent  to  him 
without  delay.  He  also  urges  Amenophis  to  send  back  the  Alashiyan 
messenger  with  the  much-needed  money. 

The  end  of  the  text  is  much  mutilated,  but  enough  remains  to 
show  that  the  letter  was  despatched  to  Egypt  by  a  special  mission 
consisting  of  four  or  five  members,  among  whom  were  Kunia,  Itilluna, 
and  Ushbarra  (I).1 

8.—  Letter  from  Tushratta,  King  of  Mitani,2  to  Amenophis  IIL>3 
King  of  Egypt. 

This  tablet  is  the  largest  and  finest  of  the  collection,  and  very 
few  signs  are  wanting  in  the  text,  which  is  written  in  a  bold,  clear 
hand.  The  letter  is  divided  into  thirteen  paragraphs,  the  contents 
of  which  are  as  follows  :  — 

Par.  I.  "  To  Mimmuriya,  the  Great  King,  King  of  Egypt,  my 
brother,  my  son-in-law,  who  loveth  me,  and  whom  I  love,  thus  saith 
Tushratta,  the  Great  King,  thy  father-in-law,  who  loveth  thee,  the 
King  of  Mitani,  thy  brother  :  '  I  am  well,  and  may  it  te  well  with 
thee,  with  thy  government,  with  my  sister  and  thy  other  wives, 

1  These  names  are  not  mentioned  elsewhere  in  the  Tell  el-Amarna  tablets. 

8  The  principal  variant  forms  of  this  name  are  Mittdnni,  Mitani^  and  Mitan. 
A  country  also  called  Mi-ta-a-ni,  in  which  Tiglath-Pileser  I.  went  to  hunt  wild  cattle, 
is  mentioned  in  the  annals  of  that  king  (see  Rawlinson,  Cuneiform  Inscription*,  Vol.  I, 
pi.  14,  U.  62  ff.).  Whether  the  two  countries  are  identical  is  doubtful.  In  line  17  of 
the  famous  stele  which  records  the  conquests  of  Thothmes  III.  (for  the  text  see 

Mariette,  Karnak,  pi.  11,  and  Mariette,  Notice  de  feulaq,  p.  80),  mention  is  made  of  a 

a      f\    /i  /wvwv 
country  called    V\  Mdthen,  which,  as  it  is  referred  to  in  connexion  with 


the  "  country  of  the  West  and  Phoenicia  "    %^=f  &  C  K\  fc^4  ,  was  probably 

situated  on  the  eastern  border  of  Syria,  facing-  the  great  Mesopotamian  desert,  and 
may  well  be  compared  with  the  Mitani  over  which,  in  later  days,  Tushratta  ruled. 
In  the  list  of  nations  conquered  by  Rameses  III.  about  B.C.  1200,  inscribed,  upon  the 
outer  wall  of  the  Temple  of  Medinet  Habu,  the  name  of  this  country  also  appears 
to  occur  in  the  form  /wwvv  Y^.  NrN/1  Mdthena  (see  Diimichen,  Historische 


Inschriften,  pi.  XII,  No.  39,  last  row,  and  pi.  XVII,  No.  34  ;  in  the  first  of  these 
places  the  name  is  given  side  by  side  with  that  of  Carchemish). 
3  See  Introduction,  p.  xxi. 


XXXVlll  TELL    EL-A.MARNA    TABLETS. 

with  thy  children,  with  thy  nobles,  with  thy  chariots  and  horses, 
with  thy  land,  and  with  everything  which  is  thine.  May  peace 
be  multiplied  unto  thee."; 

Par.  II.  Tushratta  calls  to  mind  the  great  friendship  which 
existed  between  his  father  Shutarna  and  Thothmes  IV.,  King  of 
Egypt,  father  of  Amenophis,  to  \vhich  Amenophis  himself  greatly 
contributed  by  becoming  the  friend  and  ally  of  Shutarna.  The 
friendship  between  Tushratta  and  AmenophLs  is  ten  times  stronger 
than  that  between  Amenophis  and  Shutarna.  May  Rimnion  l  the 
god  of  Mitani,  and  Amen  the  god  of  Egypt,  on  behalf  of  each, 
prosper  the  friendship  which  they  have  established,  and  in  the  future 
make  it  to  continue  in  its  present  happy  state. 

Par.  III.  He  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  the  despatch  of 
Amenophis,  by  the  hands  of  the  messenger  Mani,  in  which  was 
written  :  "  My  brother,  let  thy  daughter  be  my  wife  and  mistress 
of  Egypt."  He  received  Mani  with  all  tokens  of  friendship, 
wishing  to  please  Amenophis.  He  also  brought  his  daughter  into  the 
presence  of  Mani,  who  looked  upon  her  and  saw  that  she  was  fair  and 
pleasing  in  his  sight  and  rejoiced  for  the  sake  of  Amenophis.  He 
hopes  that  she  will  have  a  happy  life  in  the  land  of  Egypt,  and  prays 
that  Ishtar  the  goddess  of  Mitani  and  Amen  the  god  of  Egypt  may 
mould  her  to  please  the  will  of  Amenophis. 

Par.  IV.  Tushratta  also  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  a  friendly 
despatch  which  Giliya  2  brought  back  to  Mitani  from  Amenophis. 
The  contents  pleased  him  so  greatly  that  he  exclaimed  that,  even  if 
it  were  possible  to  dissolve  all  the  friendship  which  had  existed 
between  them  in  times  gone  by,  the  words  of  this  message  3  alone 
would,  for  himself,  suffice  to  re-establish  their  friendship  for  ever. 


1  In  Babylonian,  Tissub-bili,  a  name  formed  of  Ti*sub,  the  native  name  of  the  god 
Ramman  in  Mitani,  and  bili  =  Heb.  ^3  "  lord,"  Greek  Bad\.   On  K.  2100,  col.  1,  1.  18, 
Ti-ish-su-ub  appears  to  be  the  name  of  Ramman  in  the  country  of  SU-KI  =  Mitani  (?). 

2  In  a  list  of  contributions  in  the  Kouyunjik  Collection  of  the  British  Museum 
(K.  8247,  Col.  IV,  line  11)  mention  is  made  of  a  person  called  J  Hf!^  IS!  <(  If 
Gi-lu-u-a.    Gilua  and  Giliya  are  probably  the  same  name. 

3  The  message  of  Amenophis  was  probably  a  promise  to  send  gold,  which  seems 
never  to  have  been  fulfilled. 


SUMMARY   OF    CONTEXTS.  XXXIX 

Pars.  V-VIII  record  the  contents  of  a  letter  which  Tushratta 
had  sent  to  Amenophis  previously  to  the  receipt  of  the  despatch  just 
mentioned.  He  had  written  expressing  the  hope  that  there  might 
be  warm  friendship  between  them,  and  that  Amenophis  would  give 
proofs  by  his  deeds  that  his  friendship  for  Tushratta  was  ten  times 
stronger  than  it  was  for  Shutarna.  He  then  asks  Amenophis  to 
send  him  more  o-old  than  he  sent  to  his  father,  to  whom  he  used  to 

O 

send  much  gold,  including  a  libation  bowl  and  vessels  profusely 
decorated  with  gold  ornaments  ;  moreover,  he  sent  to  Tushratta 
himself  an  object  in  which  gold  was  used  as  freely  as  if  it  were 
bronze.1  Tushratta's  grandfather  promised  to  send  Amenophis 
certain  articles  used  in  war  or  the  chase.  Tushratta  is  now  getting 
these  ready,  and  will  deliver  them  to  him  complete  in  number  and 
in  good  condition.  Finally,  he  artfully  represents  that  the  gold  for 
which  he  asks  is  to  serve  as  his  daughter's  dowry.2 

Par.  IX.  Passing  on  to  matters  of  the  present,  he  writes : 
"  When  my  brother  Amenophis  has  sent  the  gold,  if  I  ask,  '  Ts  it 
enough  ? '  the  answer  may  be,  '  Fully  enough  ' ;  or  I  may  ask,  '  Is  it 
the  full  amount  ? '  and  the  answer  may  be,  *  It  is  more  than  the  full 
amount."  In  the  latter  case3  Tushratta  declares  that  he  will  be 
"very  glad,"  but  adds,  after  the  oriental  fashion,  "With  whatsoever 
my  brother  sendeth  I  shall  be  greatly  pleased." 

Par.  X.  Tushratta  repeats  the  request  in  this  and  his  former 
letter  that  the  friendship  between  himself  and  Amenophis  may  be 
stronger  than  that  between  Amenophis  and  Shutarna,  and  he  points 
out  that  his  need  for  gold  is  twofold  :  (1)  for  payment  of  expenses 
incurred  in  sending  to  Egypt  the  articles  of  war  and  the  chase  which 
his  grandfather  promised  Amenophis ;  and  (2)  as  dowry  for  his 
daughter. 

Par.  XI,  the  longest  in  the  despatch,  consists  for  the  most  part 
of  entreaties  for  more  gold  and  that  the  quantity  usually  sent  may 

1  This  appears  to  be  the  meaning  of  lines  37  and  38.     Par.  VII  is  practically  a 
repetition  of  Par.  V. 

2  It  is  doubtful  which  of  Tushratta's  daughters  is  here  referred  to. 

8  Tushratta  means  that  he  would  be  very  glad  to  have  more  gold  sent  to  him 
than  the  exact  quantity  agreed  upon  between  them. 


xl  TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

be  increased.  The  gods  have  done  well  in  making  gold  as  plentiful 
as  dust  in  the  land  of  Egypt ;  in  the  future  may  they  make  it  still 
ten  times  more  plentiful.  Tushratta  would  not  offend  his  brother 
Amenophis  by  asking  for  gold,  but  on  the  other  hand  he  himself 
does  not  wish  to  be  offended  by  having  anything  less  than  a  large 
quantity  of  gold  sent  to  him.  In  return,  if  Amenophis  wishes  for 
anything  in  the  country  of  Mitani  for  his  palace,  let  him  send  a 
messenger,  and  Tushratta  will  give  it  to  him  to  take  back,  His 
palace  and  his  country  Mitani  belong  to  Amenophis. 

Par.  XII.  Tushratta  announces  the  despatch  of  his  messenger 
Giliya  to  Egypt,  and  begs  Amenophis  not  to  detain  him  but  to  let 
him  return  speedily.  He  will  be-  very  glad  to  hear  of  the  despatch 
of  a  gift  from  Amenophis  by  the  hands  of  Giliya,  but  he  is  eager  to 
know  what  arrangements  Araenophis  will  make  as  to  the  amount  and 
despatch  of  gifts  to  him  in  the  future.  In  conclusion,  Tushratta 
prays  that  Eimmon  the  god  of  Mitani  and  Amen  the  god  of 
Egypt  may  make  this  letter  and  the  answer  of  Amenophis  to  reach 
their  respective  destinations  in  safety ;  that  the  nature  of  their 
correspondence  in  the  future  may  be  of  the  same  friendly  character ; 
and  that  their  friendship  may  be  as  firm  and  close  in  the  future 
as  it  is  in  the  present. 

Par.  XIII  enumerates  the  gifts  which  Tushratta  sends  to  Amen- 
ophis by  the  hands  of  Giliya,  viz. :  one  large  golden  object  inlaid 
with  lapis-lazuli ;  a  large  vessel  of  gold  inlaid  within  with  lapis- 
lazuli,  weighing  in  all  nineteen  measures  of  gold  and  twenty 
measures  of  lapis-lazuli;  a  large  vessel  of  gold  inlaid  within  with 
khal&li-stones,  weighing  in  all  forty  golden  ztizu  of  Ishtar,  and  forty- 
two  measures  of  khaldli-stones ;  ten  pairs  of  horses ;  ten  wooden 
chariots,  with  all  their  fittings  complete;  and  thirty  eunuchs. 

9. — Letter  from  Tushratta,1  King  of  Mitani,  to  Amenophis  III. 

This  almost  complete  letter  is  carefully  written,  and  is  divided 
into  nine  paragraphs,  viz. : — 

1  This  letter  was  probably  written  soon  after  Tushratta  became  king  of  Mitani. 


SUMMARY    OF    CONTENTS.  xll 

Par.  I.  "  Thus  saith  Tushrutta,  King  of  Mitani,  thy  brother,  to 
Arnenophis,  King  of  Egypt,  my  brother  :  '  I  am  well,  and  may  it  be 
.veil  with  thee,  and  with  Gilukhipa1  my  sister,  with  thy  government, 
with  thy  wives,  children,  and  nobles,  and  with  thy  body-guard, 
horses,  chariots,  and  land.": 

Par.  II  refers  to  Tushratta's  accession  to  the  throne.  On  the 
death  of  his  father  Shutarna,  his  brother  Artashumara  became 
king,  but  was  soon  after  slain  by  rebels  who  had  conspired  against 
him.  Tushratta,  though  very  young,  gathered  together  all  those 
who  were  favourable  to  his  succession,  and,  by  the  help  of  the  good 
fortune  which  stood  by  him,  he  succeeded  in  capturing  the  rebels, 
headed  by  one  Pirkhi  (?),  and  in  slaying  the  murderers  of  his  brother; 
he  then  ascended  the  throne  and  began  to  rule  the  kingdom  of 
Mitani. 

Par.  III.  Knowing  that  his  father  Shutarna  and  Amenophis 
were  good  friends,  he  ventures  to  send  this  despatch,  and  hopes  that 
when  Amenophis  has  read  it  he  will  feel  favourably  disposed  towards 
him.  Shutarna,  by  reason  of  his  love  for  Amenophis,  which  exceeded 
that  of  Amenophis  for  Shutarna,  gave  him  his  daughter  Gilukhipa 
to  wife.  Now  let  Amenophis  transfer  the  friendship  which  he  had 
for  Shutarna  to  himself. 

Par.  IV.  Continuing  the  same  subject,  he  claims  this  friendship, 
and  feels  sure  that  his  claim  will  be  allowed  when  Amenophis  hears 
that  the  King  of  the  Khatti  had  invaded  Tushratta's  territory,  and 
that,  Rimmon  the  god  of  Mitani  having  delivered  him  into  his 
hand,  he  had  slain  him. 

Pars.  V  and  VI  announce  that  Tushratta  is  sending,  as  a  gift 
selected  from  the  spoil  captured  by  him  from  the  Khatti,  a  chariot, 
two  horses,  a  youth  and  a  maiden ;  in  addition,  he  sends  him  five 
chariots  and  five  pairs  of  horses  from  his  own  stables. 

Par.  VII.  He  sends  as  a  gift  for  his  sister  Gilukhipa  a  pair  of 
gold  bracelets  (?),  a  pair  of  gold  earrings,  a  golden  toilet  (?)  bowl,  and 
one  full  measure  of  choice  oil  for  anointing. 

Par.  VIII.  He  announces  the  despatch  of  Giliya  his  messenger, 
accompanied  by  Tunip-ipri,  and  he  begs  that  Amenophis  will  send 

1  See  Introduction,  p.  xix. 


xlii  TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 

them  back  to  him  speedily,  and  that  they  may  bring  him  word  that 
Amenophis  has  sent  him  a  gift  to  rejoice  his  heart. 

Par.  IX.  In  conclusion,  he  repeats  his  entreaty  for  the  friendship 
of  Amenophis,  and  hopes  that  he  will  send  his  messengers  with  return 
gifts  for  him,  and  that  they  may  soon  arrive. 

10. — Letter  from  Tushratta,  King  of  Mitani,  to  Amenophis  III. 

This  letter,  which  is  divided  into  five  paragraphs,  begins  with  the 
usual  lengthy  salutations,  but  also  contains  a  greeting  to  Tatumkhipa, 
the  daughter  of  Tushratta,  who  has  become  the  wife  of  Amenophis. 
He  addresses  Amenophis  as  "  my  son-in-law,  whom  I  love,  and  who 
loveth  me,"  and  refers  to  himself  as  "thy  father-in-law,  who  loveth 
thee." 

Pars.  II  and  III  refer  to  the  going  down  of  "  Ishtar  of  Nineveh, 
lady  of  the  world/' 1  into  the  land  of  Egypt,  beloved  by  Tushratta, 
both  during  his  own  reign  and  during  that  of  his  father.  It  would 
appear  that  the  worship  of  this  goddess  had  declined  in  Egypt,  for 
Tushratta  begs  Amenophis  to  increase  it  tenfold. 

Par.  IV.  He  prays  that  Ishtar,  the  mistress  of  heaven,  the 
goddess  of  Mitani,  may  protect  both  Amenophis  and  himself  for  a 
hundred  years,  and  that  the  "  lady  of  fire  "  2  may  give  to  them  both 
great  joy  of  heart  and  physical  well-being. 

Par.  V.  "  Now  Ishtar  is  a  goddess  to  me,  although  she  is  not  to 
my  brother." 

On  the  lower  part  of  the  Reverse  are  the  remains  of  three  lines  of 
hieratic  writing,  the  hieroglyphic  transcript  of  which  is  as  follows  : — 

II       s*~ 


III 


2. 

I 


|~oa  a  n^-^^  Q  /vww|^\/r°Nl 

•Ha   <5  L\\  I 


L a<^l?mmi\ 2iD  sLv,  I2TJ^ 

1  Compare  the  title  of  the  Egyptian  goddess  ft  \  hent  taut,  "  mistress  of 
the  world." 

*  Compare  the  title  of  the  Egyptian  goddess  Bast  ?  ft  |°j  "^N^  (1  hent  tekat, 

"  mistress  of  flame."  a  "^^ 

3  The  characters  in  brackets  are  added  from  a  comparison  with  the  docket  on 
B.,  No.  23. 


SUMMARY   OF   CONTEXTS.  xm 

Renpit  XXXVI  abet  IV  pert  dutu  em  pa 

Be^et  rest mdtet  en  to, 

sat an  en    aputi 

1.  Year  36,  mouth  IV  of  pert,1  was  [the  king]  in  the 

2.  southern  palace Copy  of  the 

3.  letter  .  .  .  [which]  brought  the  messenger  of  ... 

11. — Letter  from  Tushratta,  King  of  Mitani,  to  the  "  Queen  of 

Egypt." 

The  text  is  in  seven  paragraphs,  hut  is  mutilated  in  several 
places  ;  and,  as  no  one  line  is  complete,  it  is  impossible  to  make  any 
connected  version  from  it. 

Par.  I.  Tushratta  sends  greeting  to  the  "  lady  of  Egypt,"  to 
her  son  Napkhurriya  [afterwards  Amenophis  IV.],  to  the  bride 
Tatukhipa  (one  of  the  wives  of  Amenophis  III.),  and  hopes  that  it  is 
well  with  all  that  belongs  to  her.  The  word  kalldtu,  here  translated 

*  bride/   has   in    the   other   Semitic   dialects   also    the    meaning   of 

*  daughter-in-law;'  but  this  meaning  is  unsuitable  here,  for  in  lines 
8,  11  and  13  it  is  expressly  stated  that  the  husband  of  the  lady  to 
whom  the  letter  is  addressed2  is  "Mimmuriya"  [Amenophis  III.],  and 
in  the  speech  which  Tushratta  puts  into  the  mouth  of  the  Queen  of 
Egypt,  Mimmuriya  is  referred  to  as  "  my  husband."    The  only  queen 
of  Egypt  who  could  have  been  the  mother-in-law  of  Tatukhipa  was 
Mut-em-ua,  the  mother  of  Amenophis  III.     The  letter,  however,  is 
not  addressed  to  her ;   but  probably  to  Thi,  who  is  described  on  the 
Egyptian  monuments  as  "  royal  daughter,  royal  sister,  royal  mother, 
and  royal  wife."3 

Par.  II  refers  to  some  friendly  arrangement  between  the  royal 
families  of  Mitani  and  Egypt,  which  was  known  to  Mani,  an 
Egyptian  messenger,  and  to  everyone  else. 

In  Par.  Ill  Tushratta  refers  to  the  queen's  request,  through  the 
messenger  Giliya,  that  he  would  not  dissolve  the  friendship  which 

1  /.«.,  the  Coptic  month  Pharmutbi,  which  began  on  March  27. 
*  See  above,  p.  xxi. 
3  See  above,  p.  xix. 

/* 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


had  been  maintained  between  the  royal  houses  by  Shutarna 
Amenophis  her  husband.  Par.  IV  seems  to  express  a  wish  that 
this  friendship  may  be  made  ten  times  stronger  than  before  ;  and 
in  lines  38,  42,  46  and  51  Napkhurriya  is  mentioned.  In  Par.  VI 
luni,  a  wife  of  Tushratta,  is  twice  named  ;  and  in  Par.  VII  the  gift 
sent  to  the  queen  by  Tushratta,  consisting  of  three  (or  five)  full 
measures  of  choice  oil  for  anointing,  and  other  things,  is  recorded. 

On  the  lower  part  of  the  Reverse  are  the  remains  of  two  lines, 
in  hieratic  writing,  too  much  defaced  to  be  legible  ;  on  the  left-hand 
edge  the  memorandum  of  an  Egyptian  scribe,  which  probably 
recorded  the  date  of  the  receipt  of  this  letter  and  some  few 
characters  of  which  still  remain,  is  carried  over  from  the  foot  of  the 
tablet. 

12.  —  Letter  from  Rib-Adda,1  governor  of  Byblos,2  to  the  King 
of  Egypt.3 

"  Thus  saith  Rib-Adda  to  the  lord  and  king  of  the  world,  the 
Great  King,  the  king  of  the  universe  :  '  May  the  Lady  of  Byblos  * 
give  strength  to  the  king,  my  lord  !  5  Seven  times  and  seven  times 
do  I  prostrate  myself  before  the  feet  of  my  Lord  and  my  Sun.'" 


1  The  second  part  of  this  name  =  Heb.  Tin,  Gr.  "ASw8o<f.  Addu  («~y  j^y  £^f)  and 
Dadu  (^  £2yy  >3<y)  are,  on  tablet  K.  2100,  col.  I,  11.  16,  17,  said  to  be  the  names  of 
the  god  Ramman  (Rimmon)  in  the  country  of  MAR-KI  (s^y-  ^^)5  for  MAR-TU-KI, 
i.e.,  probably  the  country  now  called  Syria. 

2  Gr.  Bu/3Xo9,  in  Babylonian  Gu-ub-lu  ;  see  Rawlinsou,  Cuneiform  Inscriptions   of 
Western  Asia,  Vol.  I,  pi.  25,  1.  86;    pi.  38,  1.  50;    Vol.  Ill,  pt.  16,  col.   v,  1.   16; 
K.  1295   (see  Catalogue  of  Kouyunjik  Collection,  p.  262),  etc.     The  forms  of  this  name 
in  other  Semitic  dialects  are  Heb.  ^33,  Syr.  A^      Arab.  jH^- ,  and  the  Egyptian  is 

•fV       'www      N  ^ 

°C^   w>  ^  Kepuna. 

D    Jl    .m  r^/N/j 

5  The  rebellious  state  of  the  countries  of  Phoenicia,  Syria,  and  Palestine,  to  be 
gathered  from  the  contents  of  the  letters  of  Rib-Adda,  seems  to  indicate  that  they  were 
addressed  to  Amenophis  IV.,  under  whose  reign  the  Egyptians  lost  their  former 
hold  on  their  Asiatic  dependencies ;  cf.  supra,  pp.  xxii,  xxiii. 

*  In  Babylonian,  blltu  sha  Oubla,  "Lady  of  Gebal";    compare  ^33   rte  in  the 
inscription    of    -|^Dirv    (Corpus    Inwiptionwn    Semiticarum,   T.    I,    pars.    1,   No.    1, 
11.  2,  3,  7,  and  8,  p.  4),  and  the  Greek  Bn«XW«,  B»)X0//V,  1 

*  This  prayer  is  found  only  in  Rib-Adda's  letters. 


SUMMAHY   OF   CONTEXTS.  xlv 

The  city  of  Byblos,  which  from  time  immemorial  has  been  the 
faithful  handmaiden  of  the  King  of  Egypt  and  of  his  ancestors,  is 
row  utterly  lost,  because  the  king  has  taken  no  thought  for  its 
safety.  Would  that  he  would  protect  that  which  belongs  to  his 
father's  house  I  The  people  who  are  in  Byblos  are  unfaithful  and 
therefore  are  unfit  to  be  the  king's  servants  ;  moreover,  the  enmity 
of  the  rebels  is  great,  and  the  gods  have  suffered  our  sons  and 
our  daughters  to  be  led  astray,  and  they  have  departed  (?)  to  the 
land  of  Yarimuta.1  The  people  of  the  cities  which  are  in  the 
mountains  and  on  the  frontier  have  gone  over  to  the  enemy  and 
have  joined  the  rebels  ;  only  Byblos  and  two  other  neighbouring 
cities  still  remain  faithful  to  him.  Abd-Ashirta£  first  captured 
one  of  them  called  Shigata,  and  then  counselled  the  citizens  of 
Aramiya,  the  other,  to  slay  their  governor  and  to  become  like  him 
and  to  lead  a  free  life.  This  they  did  and  became  rebels.  Next, 
Abd-Ashirta  sent  to  the  soldiers  in  Bit-Ninib  (?)  saying  :  "  Gather 
yourselves  together,  and  let  us  go  up  against  Byblos,  and  let  us 
occupy  the  countries  through  which  we  pass,  and  let  us  appoint  our 
own  governors  over  them."  Thus  all  the  countries  rebelled,  and 
there  were  no  more  loyal  people  left  in  the  land,  and  our  sons  and 
our  daughters  submitted  to  abide  under  the  rule  of  the  rebels. 
Unless  the  king  takes  immediate  steps  to  protect  his  interests,  the 
whole  land  will  be  in  rebellion  against  him,  and  what  then  is  to 
become  of  Byblos  ?  The  rebels  have  made  a  league  amongst  them- 
selves, and  Hib-Adda  fears  that  there  will  be  no  one  to  deli  ver  him 
out  of  their  hands,  for,  being  shut  up  in  the  king's  territory  in 
Byblos,  he  is  like  unto  a  bird  shut  up  in  a  cage.  Why  does  the 
king  continue  to  be  careless  about  his  land  ?  Rib-  Adda  has  repeated 
everything  to  the  king  of  Egypt,  who  has,  however,  paid  no 
attention  to  his  words.  If  the  king  has  any  doubt  about  the 
distress  which  has  fallen  on  Byblos,  let  him  make  enquiries  of 


1  Compare  the  names  rwo")!,  Joshua  x,  3,  and  n'W)*,  1  Chronicles  viii.  14. 

2  This  name  has  been  compared  to  the  Phoenician  rnne'jnay,  "the  servant  of 
Ashtoreth,"  Gr.  'A/3£a'or/»aTo?.      A  king  of  Tyre  of  this  name  is   mentioned   by 
Joseplms  (Cont.  Apion,  I,  18,  ed.  Didot,  T.  II,  p.  348  =  Mailer's  Hist.  Grace.,  T.  IV, 
p.  445  ff.). 


xlvi  TELL   EL-AMAUNA    TABLETS. 

Amanappa,1  who  both  knows  of  it  and  has  seen  it.  Would  that  the 
king  would  listen  to  the  words  of  his  servant  and  save  his  life, 
for  then  could  he  protect  his  loyal  city  !  2  The  king  is  merciful,  arid 
Rib-Adda  prays  day  and  night  that  he  may  be  under  his  rule,  for,  if 
he  is  not,  what  is  to  become  of  him  ? 

13. — Letter  from  Rib- Adda,  governor  of  Byblos,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

It  begins  with  the  form  of  salutation  as  found  in  No.  12.  Rib- 
Adda  reports  to  the  king  that  Aziru  has  acted  in  a  hostile  manner 
against  his  people,  that  he  has  taken  twelve  of  them  captive,  and  that 
he  has  set  the  price  of  their  ransom  at  fifty  pieces  of  silver.  The 
forces  which  Rib- Adda  sent  to  the  city  of  Sumuru 3  were  made 
prisoners  in  the  city  of  Tubuliya.  4  The  ships  of  Sumuru,  Beyrut,5 

f\    i_i "  "  '    f\  r~i 

1  Compare  the  Egyptian  name   (J      ^  [I       Amen-apt. 
8  Here  four  lines  of  text  are  mutilated. 

3  In  Babylonian  and  Assyrian,  Sumuru  and  Simirra ;  see  Rawlinson,  Cuneiform 
Inscriptions  of  Western  Asia,  Vol.  II,  pi.  53, 1.  58  (K.  276);  Vol.  Ill,  pl.9, 1.  46 ;  pi.  10,  No  2, 
1.  13,  No.  3,  1.  35;  and  K.  3042  (Catalogue  of  Koyuunjik  Collection,  p.  498),  etc.  The 
inhabitants  of  this  city  C^VO"0^!)  are  referred  to  in  Genesis  x.  18,  and  are 
mentioned  along  with  the  Arvadites  and  Hamathites.  A  notice  of  Sumuru  in  the 
Egyptian  inscriptions  occurs  in  the  Annals  of  Thothmes  III.,  who  in  the  30th  year  of 

his  reign  captured  this  town  together  with  Kade&h  and  Arvad  :    <^>  <r— : 


C]  r\\>         J  c=^3  -TV   N           n  <h  ^z^oa  e=s  .      .  <mmji  A  i  n  ^^ 

V   U       » ti  \>      fc^a    I   8  \*-Jl        I  Q I  1 1 <=> 

§11  1  r-K-i   Jf    I  IX  — «_ fl  >!^.  ODD    V  |   |  .A 

<d>  CT^3     V      (I  WWV.     fi        ^S.        <^>     rS^N/1        <CI>  W  /V^AAA     (I     ^7i  |  f^         V\      f\X\^ 

W       j      "  He  went  to  the  town  of  Kadesh,  he  cut  down  its  groves  of  trees 

o     &^  TJ 

he  went  to  the  town  of  Tchamar;  he  went  to  the  town  of  Arvad  and  did  likewise" 
(Mariette,  Karnak,  pi.  13,  1.  7).  Sumuru  represents  the  'S.lfivpa  of  Strabo,  XVI, 
cap.  2  (ed.  Didot,  p.  641)  ;  for  its  position  see  Pliny,  V,  20,  77. 

4  The  reading  of  this  name  is  doubtful ;  if  correct,  however,  reference  is  probably 
made  to  the  city  called  c      3  ^Xg^s,     I       Tepul  in  the  Egyptian  inscriptions. 

J-*)      <d>  ~\  fl    ^  '     '  ^' 

(*^^  AH     I      Baretha,   Gr.    BW>UT09,   Arab.   ^j.  ^    (Ydkut, 

Vol.  I,  p.  785),  Syr.  >flDQ^O;»n  and 


SUMMARY   OF   CONTENTS.  xlvii 

and  Sidoii l  were  all  lost  off  the  coast  of  Amurri,2  and  he  was  there- 
upon attacked  by  the  fleet  of  Yapa-Adda  and  Aziru,  who  succeeded  in 
.capturing  his  ship.  In  this  strait  he  writes  to  the  Egyptian  king 
asking  for  help,  and,  telling  him  that  his  own  people  have  now  become 
disaffected,  he  begs  him  to  do  something  to  deliver  him  out  of  the 
hands  of  the  enemy  and,  in  any  case,  to  answer  this  letter.  When 
the  city  of  Sumuru  was  attacked  by  the  enemy,  he  took  soldiers 
with  him  and  went  and  delivered  it  ;  he  then  appealed  to 
the  Egyptian  king  for  more  troops,3  but  when  they  arrived  they  were 
unable  to  enter  the  city  because  all  the  roads  were  blocked  by  the 
enemy.  The  rebel  chief  sat  down  before  the  city  for  two  months, 
and  meanwhile  endeavoured  to  corrupt  the  loyalty  of  Rib-Adda. 
He  again  asks  for  more  help,  for  the  foe  is  mighty,  and  his 
officers  fighting  under  him  within  the  city  are  murmuring  against 
him.  He  had  been  accused  of  having  stirred  up  the  land  of  Alashiya 
against  the  king,  or  of  having  given  it  over  to  the  rebels ;  he  now 
calls  to  witness  the  Egyptian  officer  Aman-mashashanu  4  to  support 
his  story.  Here  the  sense  becomes  obscure,  and  the  difficulty 
is  increased  by  the  breaks  in  the  text  of  the  last  ten  lines.  It 
seems  however  that  Rib-Adda  impresses  upon  the  Egyptian  king 
that  Yapa-Adda  and  Aziru  have  made  a  league  ;  he  begs  that  certain 
people  of  his  may  be  brought  back  from  the  land  of  Yarimuta ; 5 
and  he  asks  for  fresh  instructions. 


1  In  Babylonian  and  Assyrian,  Sidunnu  and  Sidunu;  see  Rawlinson,  Cuneiform 
Inscriptions  of  Western  Asia,  Vol.  I,  pi.  35,  No.  1, 1. 12  ;  pi.  38, 11. 35,  38, 48 ;  pi.  43, 1. 13  ; 
pi.  45,  col.  I,  11.  9,  40  ;  Voi  III.  pi.  15,  col.  II,  11.  27-30  ;  K.  1653  (Catalogue  of  Kouyunjik 

•^^^.^    c    f-r-j  /WWW        N 

Collection,  p.  325),  etc.    The  Egyptians  called  the  town    ~~1  "$\       |       T'itvna; 

and  it  is  the  fvry  of  the  Bible,  the  p¥  of  the  Phoenician  inscriptions,  and  the  ~ZiBwv  of 
Homer. 

2  In  Egyptian   (1  *TC  ._     n  1       Amdure.    Compare  the  Hebrew  Hbgrrf^ 

Judges  x.  8.  In  these  tablets  Amurri  appears  to  be  the  common  name  for  Palestine. 
As  "  Amuvri "  is  everywhere  used  in  these  texts  for  the  Phoenician  sea  coast,  it  is  clear 
that  it  is  the  true  reading  of  the  Babylonian  f*  -^^  ^ITT»  signifying  "the  West." 

3  The  text  is  here  mutilated. 

4  This  name  is  probably  Egyptian ;  Aman  =    (I          ~/|   Amen,  the  name  of  the 

I    VWWA    i— I 

great  national  god  of  Egypt. 

5  See  letter  No.  12  (p.  xlv). 


xlviii  TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

14-. — Letter  from  Bib- Adda,  governor  of  Byblos,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

He  complains  that  he  has  received  no  answer  from  the  king. 
He  has  heard  and  knows  what  his  people  have  done :  how, 
when  they  were  sent  to  his  lord,  they  carried  off'  his  two  horses 
without  any  written  authority,  and  how  others  of  them  carried  off 
the  king's  servants.  How  could  he  possibly  prevent  this,  seeing 
that  now  he  is  absolutely  without  forces  to  protect  the  country, 
which  is  all  in  the  hands  of  the  rebels  ?  He  can  do  nothing,  and  the 
King  of  Egypt  will  never  regain  his  hold  upon  the  land.  He  had 
already  asked  more  than  once  for  soldiers  and  horses,  but  he  had 
received  no  answer  to  his  petitions.  He  reports  that  Abd-Ashirta,, 
Yapa-Adda,  and  Zimrida  "  are  alive  " ;  and  it  would  seem  that  they 
were  in  his  power.  Although  the  city  of  Sumuru  has  rebelled,  and 
the  city  of  Sarti  (?)  has  fallen  into  the  hands  of  Yankhamu,  Rib- 
Adda  promises  that,  so  long  as  the  corn  holds  out,  he  will  defend 
the  city  of  Byblos.  In  compliance  with  the  king's  orders  he  had 
despatched  certain  troops  to  Egypt,  but  on  the  road  they  deserted ; 
and  although  he  tried  day  and  night  to  persuade  them  to  return  to 
the  service  of  the  king,  and  moreover  sent  two  officers  with  this 
object,  they  still  persisted  in  going  over  to  the  camp  of  Yankhamu. 
When  they  arrived  there  they  said  to  him,  "Rib-Adda  is  now  in 
thy  power ;  command  thou  what  we  shall  do  with  him,  and  we  will 
do  it."  The  remainder  of  Rib-Adda's  troops,  in  consequence  of  the 
defection  of  their  comrades,  refuse  to  obey  orders,  and  he  therefore 
announces  his  decision  :  "  If  thou,  0  king,  wilt  not  send  me  an 
answer,  I  will  abandon  the  city,  and  I  and  my  friends  will  cease  to 
be  thy  subjects." 

Parts  of  the  text  of  the  last  five  lines  are  wanting,  and  no 
connected  sense  can  be  gained  from  the  characters  which  remain. 
In  line  53  mention  is  made  of  a  certain  man  Milkuru,  or  Ishkuru, 
who  is  also  mentioned  on  a  tablet  at  Berlin  (No.  48,  1.  85). 

15, — Letter  from  Rib- Adda,  governor  of  Byblos,  to  Amanappa,1 
a  high  official  of  the  King  of  Egypt. 

1  For  other  letters  of  Rib-Adda  to  Amanappa  see  Nos.  21,  22,  23  (pp.  liii,  liv). 


SUMMARY    OF   CONTENTS. 


xlix 


"  To  Amanappa,  my  father,  thus  saith  thy  son  Rib- Adda :  *  I 
prostrate  myself  before  the  feet  of  my  father,  and  may  the  Lady  of 
Byblos  give  thee  favour  in  the  sight  of  the  king  thy  Lord.' "  He  asks 
why  Amanappa  does  not  report  the  state  of  affairs  to  the  king,  and 
why,  having  heard  that  the  troops  have  abandoned  their  cities  and 
have  gone  out  and  become  rebels,  he  has  not  set  out  to  attack  them 
in  the  land  of  Amurri.  He  asks  if  it  can  be  possible  that  Amanappa 
does  not  know  that  Amurri  has  become  a  stronghold  of  the  rebels, 
who  now  also  hate  Abd-Ashirta,  his  old  enemy,  and  that  they  have 
banded  themselves  together  and  are  waiting  for  the  arrival  of  other 
troops  to  begin  to  fight  against  him.  He  exhorts  Amanappa  to  join 
him  in  an  attack  upon  them,  especially  as  he  is  sure  that  all  the 
governors  are  ready  to  attack  Abd-Ashirta ;  for  he  had  issued  a 
proclamation  to  the  citizens  of  Ammiya,  saying,  "  Kill  your  governor, 
and  rebel,"  whereupon  the  other  governors  said,  "  He  will  do  this  to 
us  also,  and  then  all  countries  will  rebel."  Rib- Adda  begs  Amanappa 
to  report  this  matter  to  the  king,  "  for  thou  art  my  father  and 
master,  and  I  trust  in  thee."  He  refers  to  some  past  services  which 
he  had  rendered  in  connection  with  the  city  of  Sumuru  and  which 
are  known  to  Amanappa,  and  he  begs  him  to  ask  the  king  to  send 
help  to  Byblos  as  soon  as  possible. 

16. — Letter  from  Rib- Adda,  governor  of  Byblos,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

After  the  usual  salutations,  he  entreats  the  king  to  listen  to  what 
he  says  : — "  The  people  of  Byblos,  the  members  of  my  house,  and  my 
wife  counselled  me  to  join  the  followers  of  Abd-Ashirta  and  to  make 
a  league  with  them  ;  but  I  did  not  listen  to  them.  Moreover,  I  sent 
word  to  the  king,  my  lord,  and  repeated  my  request  for  a  company 
of  soldiers  to  protect  the  city  for  the  king,  my  lord ;  but  no  answer 
from  the  king  ever  reached  me.  In  these  straits  I  made  up  my 
mind,  and  I  went  to  Ammunira  l  [governor  of  Beyrut]  for  protection, 
for  I  feared  the  people  of  my  own  house ;  but  he  shut  his  door  in 
my  face,  and  now  I  must  appeal  again  to  the  king  for  help.  "I  await 

1  For  letters  of  this  official,  who  appears  to  have  been  au  Egyptian,  see  Nos.  26 
and  27  (pp.  Iv,  Ivi). 

9 


1  TELL   EL  AMARNA    TABLETS. 

the  arrival  of  the  soldiers  day  and  night,  and  if  the  king,  my  lord, 
does  not  send  help  to  me,  I  shall  perish,  and  the  king  will  lose  a 
[faithful]  servant." 

The  letter  concludes  with  the  promise  that  he  will  hand  over 
into  the  custody  of  the  king's  officer  his  two  sons  and  their  wives, 
who  were  probably  the  inciters  of  those  who  wished  him  to  join 
Abd-Ashirta. 

17. — Letter  from  Rib -Adda,  governor  of  By  bios,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt,1 

After  brief  salutations,  he  tells  the  king  that  the  hostilities 
carried  on  against  the  city  by  the  rebels  are  very  serious.  He 
asks  what  steps  he  is  to  take,  for  Abd-Ashirta,  the  rebel,  does 
as  he  pleases  in  the  countries  of  the  king.  He  has  already  sent 
a  messenger  with  a  despatch  informing  the  king  that  the  cities 
under  his  charge  are  in  danger ;  that  the  enemy  are  marching 
upon  them  ;  that  they  have  already  captured  the  city  of  Beyrut, 
and  are  now  coming  on  against  him ;  and  that  in  a  very  short  time 
the  foe  will  be  at  the  gate,  and  that  the  people  of  Byblos  will 
neither  be  able  to  come  in  nor  go  out.  Thus  the  city  will  be 
captured,  unless  the  king  sends  chariots  and  soldiers  to  deliver  it. 
Rib-Adda  would  not  disobey  the  king's  commands,  but  he  begs 
him  to  listen  to  his  words :  the  city  of  Byblos  and  all  the  coast 
down  to  Egypt  is  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  rebels,  and  unless 
the  king  sends  instructions  to  him  forthwith  he  must  surrender 
Byblos  also  to  the  foe.  Let  the  king  then  send  arid  deliver  the 
city  from  the  hands  of  Abd-Ashirta,  that  he  (Rib- Adda)  may  once 
more  rule  over  it.  If  only  the  king  will  send  chariots  and  soldiers 
to  deliver  Byblos,  which  has  ever  been  the  king's  loyal  city,  he  is 
confident  that  he  will  be  able  to  regain  possession  of  the  other  cities 
which  are  already  lost  to  the  king. 

The  last  paragraph  refers  to  some  act  of  the  messenger  of  the 

1  The  two  characters  of  the   Egyptian   king's   name   actually   remaining   are 

-ra-ri,  which  are  probably  part  of  a  Babylonian  form  of  the  prenomeu  of 

Amenophis  IV.     See  above,  p.  xliv,  note  3. 


SUMMARY  OF    CONTENTS.  H 

King  of  Accho  (?),*  and  horses  are  mentioned ;  the  breaks  and 
obscurities  of  the  text  make  a  connected  rendering  of  this  part 
01  the  letter  impossible. 

18. — Letter  from  Rib- Adda,  governor  of  By  bios,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

He  prays  for  advice  and  assistance.  In  the  days  of  the  king's 
father,  when  Abd-Ashirta  waged  war  against  him,  he  sent  to  the 
King  of  Egypt  for  troops,  and,  because  his  request  was  granted, 
all  the  lands  were  quiet ;  and,  notwithstanding  Abd-Ashirta's  large 
following,  he  was  unable  to  capture  the  "  loyal  city  Byblos."  But 
now  Aziru  has  gathered  together  the  rebels,  and  is  plotting  mischief 
against  Byblos.  A  break  in  the  text  here  destroys  the  end  of  this 
passage.  Mention  is  then  made  of  Yaukhamu  ;  and  Rib- Adda  seems 
to  request  the  king  to  deal  with  Abd-Ashirta  as  he  deserves.  It 
would  appear  that  Khaib,  governor  of  the  city  of  Sumuru,  had  been 
forced,  through  the  disobedience  of  the  people  under  him,  to  sur- 
render the  city.  Rib-Adda  believes  that  the  king  will  regret  to 
learn  this  news,  especially  as  Khaib  was  slain ;  and;  in  consequence 
of  the  fall  of  the  city,  Bikhura  will  not  be  able  to  maintain  his 
position  in  Kumiti ; 2  in  fact,  all  the  governors  throughout  the 
land  will  be  slain,  if  assistance  is  not  immediately  forthcoming. 
He  has  before  this  duly  informed  the  king  of  these  facts,  but  he 
has  received  no  answer.  Finally  he  begs  the  king  to  send  a 
stated  number  of  soldiers  and  chariots  to  protect  his  land.  The 
sense  of  the  concluding  portion  of  the  letter  is  obscured  through 
breaks  in  the  text. 

19. — Letter  from  Rib- Adda,  governor  of  Byblos,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

1  In  Babylonian  and  Assyrian,  Ak-ku-u  and  A-ku-u  ;  see  Rawlinson,  Cuneiform 
Inscription  of  Western  Asia,  Vol.  I,  pi.  38,  1.  40 ;  Vol.  V,  pi.  9,  1.  122 ;  and  K.  4444 
(Catalogue  of  Kouyunjik  Collection,  p.  633).    The  Semitic  forms  of  this  name  are:  Heb. 

12J7,  Phoen.  TV,  Syr.  QO!>  Arab.  \£^,  ^  ?  and  the  Egyptian  is  ^—%  j^  fc^4  Aka. 

2  Compare  the  name  A  ^^  ^~h  <=^i>  rvx^  Kamdtn,    a  town   situated   in  the 
northern  part  of  Phoenicia.     See  Brugsch,  Geoyraphische  Inschriften,  II,  Taf.  XIII,  i. 


Hi  TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

He  prostrates  himself  "  seven  times  and  seven  times  "  before 
the  king,  and  prays  that  the  "  Lady  of  Byblos  may  give  strength 
to  the  king,  my  lord."  In  answer  to  the  king's  command,  that 
he  should  defend  himself  and  the  city  under  his  charge,  he  asks, 
"  Against  whom  shall  I  defend  myself  and  the  city  ? "  In  former 
times  there  was  a  garrison  of  the  king's  soldiers  in  the  city,  and 
the  king  sent  corn  from  the  land  of  Yarimuta1  to  feed  them.  But 
now  Aziru  has overcome  him  in  spite  of  his  efforts,  and  has  carried 
off  the  oxen  and  everything  which  he  had.  There  is  no  corn  to  eat, 
and  the  officers  and  the  soldiers  have  rebelled  and  have  forsaken  the 
city,  and  have  gone  to  places  where  there  is  corn  to  eat.  The  king 
appointed  him  a  "  governor,"  but  how  can  he  be  considered  to  be  a 
"  governor  ?"  For  the  "governors"  of  all  the  other  cities  are  now 
under  the  rule  of  others,  and  are  bound  to  obey  their  soldiers, 
and  he,  too,  and  the  cities  in  his  charge,  are  in  fact  under  the  rule  of 
Aziru.  To  whom  is  he  to  be  "  faithful,"  according  to  the  words  of 
the  king's  despatch1?  Moreover,  the  followers  of  Abd-Ashirta  are  in 
league  with  Aziru,  and,  as  the  king  knows,  they  do  what  is  good  in 
their  own  eyes,  and  they  have  set  on  fire  the  cities  of  the  king. 

20. — Letter  from  Bib- Adda,  governor  of  Byblos,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

He  informs  "  his  lord,  the  Great  King,  the  king  of  the 
world,  king  of  the  universe,"  that  he  will  continue  to  defend  the 
country  in  the  future  as  he  has  done  in  the  past.  A  break  interrupts 
the  meaning  of  the  next  paragraph ;  but  it  seems  that  Bikhura, 
governor  of  the  city  of  Kumiti,  had  sent  a  hostile  force  against 
Byblos.  Rib- Adda  therefore  begs  the  king,  if  he  loves  his  faithful 
servant,  to  send  troops  to  defend  the  city  in  his  own  interest. 
Referring  to  the  king's  former  order,  Rib- Adda  asks  how  it  is 
possible  for  him  to  defend  himself  against  Abdirama,  Iddin-Adda, 
and  Abdi-milki,  followers  of  Abd-Ashirta,  whom  Bikhura  has  urged 
to  come  up  against  him,  seeing  that  they  have  already  made  them- 
selves master  of  all  the  king's  territory.  The  letter  concludes  with 
a  repetition  of  the  request  for  troops. 

1  See  letters  No.  12  (p.  xlv),  and  No.  13  (p.  xlvii). 


SUMMARY   OF   CONTENTS.  liii 

[In  a  tablet  at  Berlin  (No.  134,  1.  4),  Abdi-milki,  one  of  the 
opponents  of  Rib- Adda,  is  called  the  governor  of  the  city  Shaskhi(mi), 
who  at  the  request  of  the  king  of  Egypt  promises  that  his  contingent 
of  soldiers  and  horses  and  chariots  shall  join  the  royal  army  at  the 
rendezvous.] 

21. — Letter  from  Rib- Adda,  governor  of  Byblos,  to  Amanappa,1 
a  high  official  of  the  King  of  Egypt. 

The  text  of  this  tablet  is  so  much  mutilated  that  not  a  single 
line  is  complete.  From  the  fragments  which  remain  it  seems  that 
Rib-Adda  prays  that  Amen,  the  great  god  of  Egypt,  may  give 
Amanappa  favour  in  the  sight  of  the  king.  The  fierceness  of  the 
enemy's  attack  is  increasing ;  and  it  appears  that  supplies  of  corn 
had  for  the  last  three  years  become  scarce  in  Byblos.  Mention  is 
made  of  the  land  of  Amurri,  whither  Amanappa  is  asked  (?)  to 
send  troops ;  of  the  land  of  Mitani ;  of  Yankhamu,  who  supplied 
Amanappa  (?)  with  corn  ;  and  of  the  city  of  Sumuru.  The  letter 
ends  with  the  usual  request  for  troops. 

22. — Letter  from  Rib-Adda,  governor  of  Byblos,  to  Amanappa, 
a  high  official  of  the  King  of  Egypt. 

He  asks  why  his  conduct  has  been  blamed  (?).  He  had  sent 
Amanappa's  messenger,  who  was  with  him,  into  the  presence  of  the 
king,  and  he  had  also  supplied  Amanappa  with  soldiers  and  chariots 
to  defend  the  city  of  Beyrut  (?),  and  he  is  therefore  much  grieved 
to  hear  Amanappa's  words  of  reproach.  Beyrut  appears  to  have  fallen 
into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  who  are  now  about  to  attack  Byblos. 
The  concluding  lines  of  the  text  are  broken,  but  they  seem  to  contain 
a  petition  for  troops  to  protect  Byblos. 

23. — Letter  from  Rib- Adda,  governor  of  Byblos,  to  [Amanappa], 
a  high  official  of  the  King  of  Egypt. 

After  the  usual  salutations,  in  which  the  king  is  called  the  "  sun 
of  the  countries,"  Rib- Add  a  explains  why  he  was  not  able  to  obev 
Amanappa's  orders  in  going  to  Sumuru  to  meet  him.  He  asks 

1  Cf.  No.  15,  pp.  xlviii,  xlix. 


liv  TELL    EL-AMAKNA    TABLETS. 

Amanappa  why,  seeing  that  he  knew  the  difficulties  of  his  position, 
he  told  him  to  go  up  to  that  city.  He  is  surrounded  with  foes  on  all 
sides;  the  city  of  Ambi  has  rebelled  against  him,  through  the  influence 
of  the  Abcl-Ashirta  faction  upon  the  governor  and  officers  of  the  city  ; 
he  is  unable  to  fight  against  the  enemy  successfully,  and  he  is  stricken 
with  fear.  He  further  begs  Amanappa  to  come  to  his  assistance  as 
soon  as  possible;  and  in  the  concluding  passage,  six  lines  of  which 
are  mutilated,  he  seems  to  reiterate  his  request  for  troops  to  defend 
the  city  of  Byblos. 

24. — Letter  from  [Bib-Adda,  governor  of  Byblos]  to  the  King 
of  Egypt. 

Although  the  first  lines,  which  contained  the  name  of  the 
writer,  are  wanting,  yet,  judging  from  the  contents  of  the  letter,  the 
style  of  writing,  the  material  of  which  the  tablet  is  made,  and  its 
shape,  it  is  tolerably  certain  that  it  formed  part  of  the  corres- 
pondence of  Rib- Adda. 

Bib- Adda  begins  by  informing  the  king  that,  notwithstanding 
that  he  had  posted  troops  at  Byblos,  the  city  of  Surauru  has  been 
captured  by  the  enemy  and  the  soldiers  from  Byblos  have  been 
slain.  If  the  king  will  have  a  care  for  his  city  of  Byblos,  let  him 
send  four  captains  and  their  companies,  thirty  chariots,  and  one 
hundred  mercenaries  (?)  of  various  nations,  and  they  will  suffice  to 
protect  the  city  ;  if,  however,  the  king  does  not  speedily  send  troops 
to  join  those  already  under  Bib- Adda,  and  food  with  them,  the  city 
itself  will  be  captured  and  the  inhabitants  will  be  slain.  Biri,1  an 
officer  of  the  Egyptian  king,  who  had  been  sent  to  help  Bib- Adda, 
bad  already  been  slain,  and  his  followers  were  scattered.  Bib- 
Adda's  "eyes  fell  sick"  when  they  saw  these  things,  and  he  was 
sore  afraid  when  he  knew  that  Biri  could  no  longer  help  him. 
He  had  applied  to  Bakhamna[ta],2  an  officer  of  the  Egyptian  king, 

1  According  to  a  tablet  at  Berlin  (No.  1 60,  1.  4),  Biri  appears  to  have  been  the 
governor  of  the  city  of  Khashabu  (or  Kharabu?  ;  cf.  B.,  No.  154,  1.  43). 

2  This  name  appears  to  be  Egyptian.     In  a  tablet  at  Berlin  (No.  80, 1.  22)  he  is 
called  rdbis  sharri,  "  officer  of  the  king,"  and,  if  the  name  Pukhanati  be  identical  with 
Pakhamnata,  he  is  also  mentioned  in  Berlin  tablet  No.  97,  11.  10  ff. 


SUMMARY   OF   CONTEXTS.  Iv 

for  troops,  begging  him  to  send  young  men,  or  old  men,  or  soldiers 
of  any  kind  whatsoever  ;  but  this  officer  had  turned  a  deaf  ear  to 
him,  and  therefore  had  happened  what  had  happened.  Pakham- 
nata  himself  saw  the  city  of  Sumuru  destroyed;  Rib- Adda  begs 
the  king  to  notice  this  fact.  The  condition  of  affairs  in  By  bios  is 
very  serious,  for  everything  has  been  consumed ;  the  troops  have  no 
corn  to  eat,  and  a  number  of  them  have  been  slain  at  the  capture  of 
Sumuru.  Here  the  text  becomes  mutilated,  and  breaks  off  after  the 
mention  of  Yankhamu. 

25. — Letter  from  Rib- Adda,  governor  of  By  bios,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

He  asks  for  troops  to  defend  Byblos  and  the  neighbouring 
cities.  He  seems  to  be  in  league,  or  on  terms  of  friendship,  with 
Yankhamu,  the  Egyptian  official,  for  he  deprecates  the  charges 
which  have  been  made  against  both  himself  and  Yankhamu  by 
certain  people,  and  hopes  that  there  may  be  peace.  The  text  of 
this  tablet  is  much  mutilated. 

26. — Letter  from  Ammunira,1  governor  of  Beyrut,  to  the  King 
of  Egypt. 

After  a  brief  greeting  and  expression  of  homage,  he  acknowledges 
the  receipt  of  a  despatch  from  the  king,  "  his  lord,  his  god,2  and  his 
sun."  In  this  despatch  the  king  had  commanded  him  to  furnish 
a  contingent  to  the  Egyptian  army  ;  and  now  he,  the  king's  loyal 
governor,  informs  him  that  in  obedience  to  his  orders  he  has  sent 
a  number  of  chariots,  horses  and  men  provided  with  all  necessaries, 
and  he  prays  that  the  king  may  be  victorious  over  his  foes  and  that 
his  own  eyes  may  see  the  triumph  of  his  lord.  He  concludes  by 
entreating  humbly  that,  when  the  king  has  brought  the  war  to 
a  victorious  close,  he  will  reward  his  servant  for  his  expense  and 
trouble  ;  he,  "  the  footstool "  of  the  king,  his  lord,  will  during  the 

f\    JI I ' .'  M     ^"    ^^   /7\        C\        ^ 

1  This  is  probably  a  form  of  some  Egyptian  name  like  [I  _rf  A  men-Rd. 

I    /VWWv ft      I      jit 

2  In  Babylonian  »7dm,  literally  "  gods."    See  below,  p.  Lsi. 


Ivi  TELL  -EL-  AM  ARN  A    TABLETS. 

absence  of  his  soldiers  endeavour  to  guard  the  city  and  garrison 
under  his  charge,  until  his  eyes  shall  behold  his  soldiers  returning 
to  Beyrut. 

27.  —  Letter  from  Ammunira,  governor  of  Beyrut,  to  the  King 
of  Egypt. 

He  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  the  king's  "  tablet,"  the  contents 
whereof  made  his  heart  glad  and  his  eyes  bright.  He  is  vigilantly 
guarding  Beyrut  for  the  "  king  his  lord  ";  but  still  he  awaits  the 
arrival  of  the  king's  troops  with  anxiety.  In  respect  of  the  "  men  of 
Byblos,"  he  is  carefully  watching  them  until  the  king  shall  make  his 
pleasure  known  concerning  them.  He  next  reports  that  certain 
Egyptian  officials  stationed  in  the  land  of  Amurri  have  been  evilly 
entreated  by  the  followers  of  Rib-Adda.  In  conclusion  he  declares 
that  his  soldiers,  his  chariots  and  his  horses  are  ready  to  join 
the  king's  native  army  from  Egypt  ;  and  he  repeats  the  usual 
formula  of  homage. 

28.  —  Letter  from  Abi-milki,1  governor  of  Tyre,2  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

"  To  the  king,  my  lord,  my  sun,  iny  god,  thus  saith  Abi-milki  thy 
servant  :  '  Seven  times  and  seven  times  do  I  prostrate  myself  at  the 


1  Compare  the  Hebrew  name  Abimelech,  "5)O1|?X:  ,    given  to  several  kings  of 
Philistia,  Gath,  Gerar,  etc.,  Genesis,  xx.  2,  xxvi.  1  ;  Psalm  xxxiv.  1  ;  Judges  viii.  31. 

3  In  Assyrian  and  Babylonian,  Sur-ru;  see  Rawlinson,  Cuneiform  Inscriptions  of 
Western  Asia,  Vol.  I,  pi.  35,  No.  1,  1.  12;  Vol.  II,  pi.  67,  rev.  1.  66;  Vol.  Ill,  pi.  16, 

col.  v,  1.  13  ;  Vol.  V,  pi.  2,  1.  49  ;  and  K.  1292  (Catalogue  of  Kouyimjik  Collection,  p.  261), 

«>  J» 

etc.;  Heb.  -tf,  or  li*,  Phoen.  -|*,  Syr.  9O^  Arab.  ^\,  Gr.  Tvpos  (Herodotus  II,  44; 

Arrian,  Anabasis,  II,  16  ff.,  etc.).  The  city  of  Tyre  consisted  of  two  parts  :  the  island, 
formed  of  two  rocks  which  were  made  habitable  by  piling  earth  upon  them,  and 
the  town  on  the  mainland,  called  Palae  Tyrus.  The  island  was  the  more  important 
part  in  the  time  of  the  XVIIIth  dynasty,  for  it  commanded  the  sea  both  north  and 
south  ;  the  harbour  on  the  north  side  of  the  rock  was  called  the  Sidonian,  and  that  on 

the  SOUth   Side   the   Egyptian  (Svo   £'   exei   Xi^vai,   -rov  fnev    K\eia-rovt   rov    a    avuficvov, 

oi>  Al'fvir-nov  KoXovoiv,  Strabo  XVI,  cap.  2,  §  23,  ed.  Didot,  p.  644).  Hiram,  King 
of  Tyre  (about  B.C.  950),  enlarged  the  island  by  adding  to  it  one  of  the  small  islands 
to  the  north,  and  Alexander  the  Great  joined  it  to  the  mainland  (Arrian  II,  16  ff.). 


SUMMARY    OF    CONTEXTS. 


Ivii 


feet  of  the  king,  my  lord.  I  am  the  dust  beneath  the  feet  of  the  king, 
my  lord,  and  that  upon  which  he  treadeth.  O,  my  king  and  lord, 
tLou  art  like  to  the  god  Shamash  and  to  the  god  Himmon  in  heaven. 
Let  the  king  give  counsel  to  his  servant  I  Now  the  king,  my  lord, 


Strabo  says  that  the  island  was  30  stadia  distant  from  the  Palae  Tyrus  and  200  stadia 
from  Sidon  (Strabo,  loc.  czY.,  §  24,  ed.  Didot,  p.  645);  and  Pliny  (V,  19)  describes 
its  position  and  circumference  thus :  "  Tyrus  quondam  insula,  praealto  mari  DCC 

passibus   divisa circuitus  xix  mill.   pass,  est,  intra  Palaetyro  inclusa ;   oppidnm 

ipsum  xxii  stadia  optinet."  Cf.  also  Map  of  Western  Palestine  (Palestine  Exploration 
Fund),  London,  1880,  pi.  1. 

In  the  Egyptian   inscriptions  Tyre  is    called    n  \X.  Tar,     A   v\ 

>~~@D     '       T'arau  (?)  (B-M-   Papyrus  Anastasi  I.,  No.    10,247,  Select  Papyri, 
pi.    55,   1.   3),  and  I  1  ^^  *      >  }  ^^  Sen  T or  (^Egypt.  Zeitschrift,  1 873,  p.  4).    An 

C  tJii     rr\^        |        I 

Egyptian,  travelling  through  Syria,  visited  it  and  described  it  as : — 


i 


"  temau 
A  city 


ren    -    f 
name  its; 


em 

in 


pa 
the 


HI  ma 
sea, 


T'ar 
Tyre 


en 

the 


a'ta 
is  brought 


tuf 
fo  it 


man 
water 


em 
in 


na 


mem 
port   [is] 


I 
bari 

boats  ; 


I  I  I 


user 
abounds 


su 
it 


em 
in 


I  I  I 
remu 

more 


er 

than 


;— n 

o     ill 

sa" 
sand. 


(For  the  hieratic  text  see  Papyrus  B.M.,  No.  10,247,  £e/«c£  Papyri,  pi.  55,  11.  1 
and  2,  and  for  a  hieroglyphic  transcript  see  Chabas,  Voyage,  p.  165  ff.) 

The  "  city  in  the  sea  r  can  only  refer  to  the  island  part  of  Tyre  ;  and  this 
description  of  its  situation  is  also  given  by  Ezekiel,  who  says  that  it  is  set  "in  the 
middle  of  the  sea  "  (Q'O,  cap.  xxvi.  5),  and  in  "  the  heart  of  seas  "  (D'Zp!  3??,  cap.  xxvii.  3). 
The  hieroglyphic  passage  quoted  above  shows  that  it  was  customary  to  supply 
the  inhabitants  of  the  rock  of  Tyre  with  water  brought  from  the  mainland  in 
boats,  and  the  desperate  condition  of  Abi-milki,  shut  up  on  the  bare  rock,  his  wood 
and  water  supply  from  the  mainland  having  been  cut  off,  is  evident  ;  it  also  shows 
that  as  late  as  the  XlXth,  perhaps  the  XXth,  dynasty,  water  was  still  carried  to  Tyre 
in  boats  as  it  was  in  the  days  of  Amenophis  III.  The  water  which  supplied  the  town 
of  Palae  Tyrus  on  the  mainland  appears  to  have  been  brought  from  Ras  el-'Ain.  a  few 
miles  to  the  south  of  the  town  ;  and  that  the  inhabitants  also  suffered  from  want  of 
water  in  times  of  war  is  certain  from  the  statement  of  Menander  (quoted  by  Josephus, 

A 


Ivili  TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 

hath  appointed  me  the  guardian  of  the  city  of  Tyre,  the  'royal  hand- 
maid/ and  I  sent  a  report  in  a  tablet  unto  the  king,  my  lord  ;  but 
I  have  received  no  answer  thereunto.  I  am  an  officer  of  the  king, 
my  lord,  and  I  duly  report  all  that  cometh  to  pass,  be  it  favourable 
or  be  it  unfavourable.'"  Abi-milki  then  prays  the  king  to  let  him 
have  twenty  additional  soldiers  to  defend  his  city,1  and  adds  "  let 
me  come  before  the  presence  of  the  king,  my  lord,  and  behold  his 
face,"  meaning  probably  that  he  is  personified  by  his  letter.  He 
cannot  have  the  twenty  men  without  the  orders  of  the  King  of  Egypt ; 
if  the  king  will  be  graciously  pleased  to  send  this  order,  his  servant 
Abi-milki  will  "  live  for  ever." 

Lines  27-40  are  broken,  and  it  is  not  possible  to  make  any 
connected  sense  out  of  them.  It  appears,  however,  that  Aziru  and 
his  father  Abd-Ashirta  and  Khabi,  three  revolutionary  agents  in 
Syria,  are  mentioned  in  lines  35-37.  With  line  38  begins  a  passage 
which  seems  to  state  that  Zimrida  (?)  delivered  the  city  of  Sumuru 
to  Aziru,  and  that  in  consequence  "the  king  [of  Egypt]  did  not 
eat  from  [the  produce  of]  his  city3  or  from  his  land."  When 
Abi-milki  heard  of  the  renown  of  the  king  and  of  the  fame  of  his 
troops,  he  feared  greatly,  and  all  the  countries  round  about  trembled 
because  they  had  not  protected  the  king's  interests.  As  soon  as 
Zimrida  knew  that  Abi-milki  had  been  appointed  governor  of  Tyre, 
he  attacked  and  captured  the  city  of  Sazu 3  (a  place  which  was 
probably  situated  near  Tyre),  and  therefore  the  supplies  of  wood, 

Antiq.  Jud.,  IX,  14,  2)  that  when  the  king  of  Assyria  was  besieging  the  city  in  the 
days  of  Elulaeus,  King  of  Tyre,  the  water  supply  was  cut  off  by  the  guards  who  had 
been  posted  by  the  rivers  and  aqueducts  for  that  purpose,  and  that  for  five  years  the 
Tyrians  had  no  water  except  from  the  wells  which  they  dug.  Elulaeus,  in  Assyrian 
Lult,  is  also  mentioned  in  an  inscription  of  Sennacherib ;  see  Rawlinson,  Cuneiform 
Inscriptions  of  Western  Asia,  Vol.  I,  pi.  38,  1.  35..  Esarhaddon  also  besieged  Tyre  and 
cut  off  the  supplies  of  meat  and  drink  from  its  king  Ba'lu;  see  K.  3082,  obv.  1.  14. 

1  We  are  probably  to  understand  twenty  companies  of  soldiers. 

2  I.e.,  "  receive  the  revenues  of  the  city." 

3  A  tablet  at  Gizeh  inscribed  with  a  letter  of  Abi-milki,  B.,  No.  99, 11. 11, 12,  28  ff., 
contains  a  petition  to  the  King  of  Egypt  that  he  will  order  his  inspector  in  Syria  to 
supply  him  with  wood  and  water  from  the  city  of  Sazu.     The  same  letter  relates  that 
Sidon  and  Khazor  have  gone  over  to  the  enemy,  and  adds  that  the  King  of  Egypt  will 
now  be  able  to  judge  of  the  desperate  condition  of  Tyre. 


SUMMARY   OF   CONTENTS.  lix 

water,  etc.,  which  Abi-milki  drew  from  thence  were  cut  off,  and,  as 
the  Tyrians  were  unable  to  provide  themselves  in  any  other  way, 
some  of  them  died  of  want.  Abi-milki  then  asks  for  fresh  instructions. 

The  king  of  Egypt  had  ordered  Abi-milki  to  report  to  him  every- 
thing that  he  heard,  and  in  obedience  to  this  command  he  now 
writes  :  —  Zimrida,  governor  of  the  city  of  Sidon,  and  Aziru,  a  dis- 
affected Egyptian  official,  and  the  people  of  Arvad,1  had  joined  in  a 
league  and  entered  into  a  conspiracy  and  had  gathered  together  their 
ships  and  chariots  and  soldiers  and  had  made  an  attack  upon  Tyre, 
the  "  handmaiden2  of  the  king  ";  but  "  the  hand  of  the  king  obtained 
might  and  slew  them,"  and  they  were  unable  to  capture  the  city. 
But  the  city  of  Sumuru  had  been  given  to  Aziru  by  command  of 
Zimrida.  "  Concerning  these  things  I  have  already  sent  a  tablet  to 
the  king,  my  lord,  but  I  have  received  no  answer.  I  am  surrounded 
on  all  sides  with  foes,  and  we  have  neither  wood  nor  water." 

In  this  desperate  condition,  unable  to  obtain  supplies  from  the 
mainland,  and  only  getting  them  with  the  greatest  difficulty  from  his 
ships,  owing  to  the  blockading  fleet,  Abi-milki  entreats  the  king  to 
send  him  instructions,  and  also  to  take  steps  to  protect  both  his  city 
Tyre  and  his  servant  Abi-milki.  In  conclusion  he  sends  this  tablet  by 
the  hands  of  a  common  soldier,  to  whom  he  begs  the  king  to  give 
an  immediate  answer.  The  destitute  condition  of  his  household  is 
shown  by  the  fact  that  he  is  obliged  to  send  the  soldier  without  gifts 
for  the  king,  instead  of  a  proper  envoy. 

29.  —  Letter  from  Abi-milki,  governor  of  Tyre,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

"  To  the  king,  my  lord,  my  god,  my  sun,  thus  saith  Abi-milki, 
thy  servant  :  '  I  prostrate  myself  at  the  feet  of  the  king,  my  lord, 

1  In  Babylonian  and  Assyrian,  A-ru-a-da,  or  A-ru-ad-da,  or  Ar-ma-da,  etc.;  see 
Rawlinson,  Cuneiform  Inscriptions,  Vol.  I,  pi.  25,  1.  86  ;  pi.  28,  col.  I,  1.  2  ;  Vol  II., 
pi.  76,  rev.  1.  60,  etc.  The  other  Semitic  forms  of  this  name  are:  Heb.  ^O*,  Syr. 

>O>1»    ?O>1,    kCDOjoil*    Arab.   ^\     \    (Yakut,  Vol.  J,  p.  224);    and  the  Egyptian 

Arethet. 


[1  ^?  <  Arethu,  or    (j  tff  <r>  ll 

1  21      |        (a    N^N/I  ^j  EH  (J 


2  Babylonian  amtu,  Heb.  HSX.    Compare  the  use  of  this  word  by  one  distinguished 
person  describing  herself  to  another  in  1  Samuel  xxv.  25. 

A2 


Ix  TELL    EL-AMABNA    TABLETS. 

seven  times  and  seven  times;  I  am  the  dust  under  the  feet  of 
the  king,  my  lord,  the  Sun-god,  who  riseth  upon  the  world  daily  by 
the  decree  of  the  Sun-god,  his  loving  father,  who  maketh  it  to 
live  by  his  glad  message,  who  shineth  (?)  in  the  country  of  the 
north  (?),1  who  maketh  all  lands  to  dwell  in  peace,  strength,  and 
abundance,  who  giveth  his  voice  in  heaven  like  the  god  of  thunder, 
and  all  lands  are  consumed  with  terror  at  the  sound  of  his  voice.' " 2 
He  had  sent  a  messenger  to  Egypt  to  bring  back  an  answer  from 
the  king,  and  he  trusts  that  it  will  be  found  favourable  to  himself 
when  it  arrives.  He  adds  that  not  only  himself,  but  also  the 
governors  of  all  the  countries  round  about  are  anxious  for  a  favour- 
able answer.  The  King  of  Egypt  appears  to  have  ordered  that 
Abi-milki  should  be  the  general  of  the  troops,  whereat  he  expresses 
his  joy  ("  Yayaya !  ")  and  homage.  He  has  understood  the  king's 
commands,  and  they  shall  be  duly  carried  out;  the  sun  (i.e.,  the  king) 
has  arisen  upon  him,  and  glad  tidings  have  come  forth  to  him  from 
the  mouth  of  the  king,  his  lord.  If  he  had  not  received  the  order  of 
the  king,  Tyre  would  have  been  lost,  and  the  king's  government  and 
his  name  would  have  been  blotted  out  from  the  land  for  ever ;  now 
that  he  has  received  the  king's  despatch,  it  will  be  well  with  Tyre 
and  with  the  king's  government  and  glory  for  ever.  "  Thou  art  my 
Sun  who  risest  upon  me,  thou  art  the  fortress  of  copper  upon  which 
I  take  my  stand,  and  by  the  right  hand  (?)  of  the  king  I  am  strong, 
I  am  mighty,  I  am  powerful.  Thus  I  spake  to  the  Sun-god,  the 
father  of  my  lord  and  king  :  '  When  shall  I  see  his  face  ? ' " 

Next,  the  actual  object  of  the  letter  is  stated  : — "  I  will  guard 
the  city  of  Tyre,  the  great  city,3  for  the  king,  my  lord,  and  I  will 
hold  it  until  the  king  shall  send  forth  his  power  to  help  me,  to  give 
me  water  to  drink  and  wood  to  warm  myself  withal.  Moreover, 
Zimrida  of  Sidon  sendeth  daily  an  officer  in  the  service  of  Azirn, 
the  son  of  Abd-Ashirta,  to  bring  back  to  him  news  of  what  the  King 
°f  ^7?*  wiU  do.  Thus  I  send  word  to  the  king  my  lord,  and 
I  trust  that,  when  he  knoweth  it,  it  may  seem  good  in  his  sight." 

1  Compare  Hob.  fiE>y. 

2  This  unusual  salutation  appears  not  to  occur  elsewhere. 

1  "Tyros,   et   inagnitudine  et  claritate  ante   omnes  urbes   Syriae    Phcenicesque 
memorabilia." — Q.  Curtius  IV,  2,  2. 


SUMMARY   OF   CONTEXTS.  x 

30. — Letter  from  Abi-milki,  governor  of  Tyre,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

After  addressing  the  king,  "  my  lord,  my  god,"  l  with  the  usual 
compliments,  he  informs  him  that  he  is  diligently  guarding  the 
city  of  the  king  under  his  charge.  He  repeats  his  intention  of 
coming  to  Egypt  (?)  to  meet  the  king,  and  he  thinks  that  Zimrida 
will  not  be  able  to  turn  the  city  of  Sidon  away  from  its  allegiance 
during  his  absence ;  for  he  would  have  the  king  to  know  that  after 
Zimrida  had  obtained  authority  he  had  become  hostile.  Next,  he 
prays  the  king  to  defend  the  city.  He  has  sent  this  letter  by  a 
messenger,  and  asks  that  he  may  be  received  with  favour.  He 
entreats  the  king  not  to  forsake  him,  and  to  send  him  water 
to  drink  and  wood  for  fuel,  for  the  king  knows  that  for  some 
time  past  he  has  had  neither  wood  nor  water.  To  incline  him 
to  send  help,  he  despatches  with  his  messenger  Ilu-milki 2  five 
talents  of  pure  (?)  copper  and  other  objects.  In  reply  to  the 
king's  orders  to  report  any  news  from  the  land  of  Canaan3  he 
writes  : — "  The  king  of  the  land  of  Danuna  is  dead,  and  his  brother 
hath  become  king  in  his  stead,  and  there  is  peace  in  his  land.  One 
half  of  the  city  Ugarit  hath  been  burnt  with  fire  and  is  destroyed. 
The  soldiers  of  the  land  of  Khatti  are  no  longer  here.  Itagama- 
pairi,  governor  of  the  city  of  Kidshi,4  and  Aziru  have  rebelled, 
and  are  fighting  against  Namyawiza.  Notwithstanding  that 
Zimrida,  the  governor  of  Sidon .  and  Lachish,  hath  gathered  to- 
gether ships  and  soldiers  from  the  lands  of  Aziru,  the  son  of  Abd- 
Ashirta,  if  only  the  king  will  send  fpur  captains  [with  their 
companies],  all  will  be  well  with  me,  and  I  shall  see  his  destruction." 
He  concludes  with  an  earnest  petition  for  help. 

1  Literally,  "  my  god,  my  gods"  ;  compare  *>$>$  *^fc$, 

2  Compare  ^O^  (Ruth  i.  2). 

««  A/VWSA   *fl  \ 

3  Compare  the  Egyptian  ^=^>  \\  D  \\    1  ^^   Kandna,  Heb.  J23?  . 

4  Probably  Kadesh   on  the   Orontes,   the  MC  Ketefh  of    the  Egyptian 

\  l   u   l  r^v] 

inscriptions;  see  Brugsch,  Geographische  LiscJtriften,  I,  p.  67  ;   II,  p.  56  ;  for  the  form 
of  the  name,  compare  Gr.  Ka??*,  Kdff,r,  Heb.  EHP,  Syr.  *»^JD  (Josh.  xv.  23,  etc.). 


Ixii  TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 

31. — Letter  from  Abi-milki,  governor  of  Tyre,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

The  top  right-hand  corner  of  the  tablet  is  wanting,  a  large  break 
also  occurs  in  the  middle  of  the  letter  through  a  fracture  in  the  lower 
part  of  the  tablet,  and  several  of  the  lines  which  remain  are  nearly 
defaced. 

After  the  usual  greetings  to  the  king,  the  "  everlasting  Sun-god,"  : 
he  refers  to  orders  received  from  him  to  go  to  Shalmayati  and 
salute  him,  and  to  supply  him  with  water  ;  his  servants  have,  however, 
not  been  able  to  carry  out  these  instructions,  and  he  therefore  asks 
the  king  to  take  steps  to  have  this  done  himself,  as  he  has  no  water 
to  give.  Here  there  is  a  break  of  twelve  lines,  and  the  letter  then 
continues  with  a  request  for  instructions  concerning  the  city  of  Tyie, 
"the  city  of  Shalmayati,"  and  expresses  readiness  to  obey  the  king's 
own  commands.  Abi-milki  professes  fidelity,  and  appears  to  ask  for 
authority  to  defend  Tyre,  "  the  city  of  Shalmayati."  Here  another 
break  interrupts  the  sense  of  the  letter.  Then,  after  urging  the 
king  to  send  water  to  Tyre,  he  asks  him  to  question  his  officer  if 
there  has  not  been  a  revolt  in  Sumuru  ;  and  concludes  by  telling 
him  that,  as  the  natives  of  Sidon  and  other  cities  have  withdrawn  to 
Sidon  by  ship,  he  also  intends  to  go  after  them. 

It  is  probable  that  Shalmayati  was  a  rival  governor  of  Tyre, 
which  Abi-milki  henceforth  calls  the  "  city  of  Shalmayati."  He 
accordingly  refuses  him  water,  and  finally  joins  the  people  who  have 
gone  to  Sumuru.2 

1  In  Babylonian,  Shamash  ddritum.    Compare  the  title  of  the  god  Harpocrates, 
C6MEC  €IAAM  (&?M  tttottJ)    "everlasting   Sun,"   engraved  by  the  Gnostics 
upon  gems  above  figures  of  this  god  seated  on  a  lotus  flower.    See  King,  Gnostics  and 
their  Remains,  plate  VII,  No.  4,  and  plate  facing  p.  35,  No.  9. 

2  Two  letters  of  Abi-milki  are  preserved  at  Gizeh  (B.,  Nos.  98  and  99)  and  one  at 
Berlin  (No.  162).     ^,  No.  98  contains  the  usual  salutations  and  expressions  of  fidelity, 
and  entreats  the  king  to  send  provisions  ;  the  principal  contents  of  B.  99  are  referred 
to  on  p.  Iviii,  note  3  ;  and  B.,  No.  162  expresses  pleasure  at  the  receipt  of  the  king's 
despatch,  and  reports  that  he,  Abi-milki,  has  received  no  supply  of  water  and  wood 
from  Sidon  and  Arvad,  for  the  text  of  lines  14  and  15  appears  to  read: — 

r?  SL  m- 


SUMMARY   OF   CONTENTS  Ixiii 

32.  —  Letter  from  Zitadna,  governor  of  Accho,1  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

"  Zitadna  thy  servant,  the  dust  of  thy  feet,  prostrates  himself 
seven  times  and  seven  times  before  the  feet  of  the  king,  my  lord,  my 
sun,  my  god."  The  concluding  portion  of  the  text  is  wanting. 

33.  —  Letter  from  Abd-Ashirta,  the  rival   of  Eib-Adda,  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

He  expresses  profound  loyalty  to  the  king,  and  wishes  him  to 
know  that  his  enemies  are  prevailing  against  him.  He  hopes  that  he 
may  find  favour  before  the  face  of  "  the  king  his  lord,"  and  that  he 
will  send  an  officer  to  protect  him.  In  conclusion,  he  has  read  and 
understood  the  despatch  which  the  king  had  sent  him,  and  according 
to  his  request  he  sends  him  ten  women. 

[In  a  letter  of  Abd-Ashirta  preserved  at  Berlin  (No.  97),  he 
says  that  he  was  governor  of  the  country  of  Amurri  and  of  the 
cities  of  Sumuru  and  Ullaza,  and  that  his  general  was  Pakhanati, 
or  Pakhamnata.-]  For  accounts  of  his  movements,  see  the  letters 
of  Eib-Adda. 

34-  —  Letter  from  Abdi-Ashtati  [Abd-Ashirta  ?]3  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

He  has  received  the  king's  despatch,  and  has  understood  his 
words.  He  hopes  that  the  King  of  Egypt  will  listen  to  the  words 
of  his  servant  :  the  last  two  lines,  which  probably  contained  these 
words,  are  wanting. 


1  In  Babylonian,  ^flf  *-££  £r<y-y  ^fcf.     This  title  is  obtained  from  a  tablet  in 
Gizeh  (B.,  No.  94,  1.  5)  and  another  at  Berlin  (No.  95,  1.  3)  ;  the  latter  tablet  mentions 
the  disaffection  of  [Zirjdamyashda  and  his  submission  (?)  to  Namyawiza  (see  below, 
pp.  Ixxii,  Ixxiii,  No.  43),  and  compares  Accho  to  the  city  of  Magdali  in  its  loyalty. 
2  Cf.  supra,  p.  liv,  note  2. 


8  Abdi-Ashtati  is  perhaps  a  defective  way  of  spelling  Abdi-Ashtarti 
The  peculiarities  of  style  and  writing  in  Nos.  33  and  34  prove  that  they  were  sent 
from  the  same  person. 


Ixiv  TELL   EL-AMARXA   TABLETS. 

35. — Letter  from  Aziru,,1  the  rebel,  son  of  Abd-Ashirta,  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

This  tablet  is  in  perfect  condition.  The  text  is  divided  into 
eight  paragraphs. 

Pars.  I  and  II  : — "  To  the  great  king,  my  lord,  my  god,  my  sun. 
I,  Aziru,  thy  servant,  prostrate  myself  at  the  feet  of  my  lord,  my  god, 
my  sun,  seven  times  and  seven  times.  0,  my  lord,  I  am  thy  servant, 
and  as  if  I  stood  in  the  presence  of  the  king,  my  lord,  I  will  declare 
all  that  I  have  to  say  unto  him.  O,  my  lord,  hearken  not  to  wicked 
men  who  slander  me  before  the  king,  my  lord,  for  I  am  thy  servant 
for  ever." 

Pars.  Ill  and  IV  relate  to  the  king's  complaint  that  Aziru  had 
not  treated  his  messenger  Khani2  with  proper  respect,  when  he 
arrived  in  Tunip.3  Aziru  defends  himself:  "  My  lord,  I  was  dwelling 
in  the  city  of  Tunip,  and  I  knew  not  whether  Khani  was  coming  or 
not ;  but,  as  soon  as  I  heard  that  he  was  coming,  I  went  forth  to 
meet  him,  but  failed  to  find  him.  When  Khani  shall  return  again 
to  the  king  in  peace,  as  in  truth  I  hope  he  will,  let  the  king  ask  him 
if  my  brethren  did  not  receive  him  in  friendship  when  he  came  into 
Tunip,  when  thy  servant  was  away,  and  if  Bitili  *  did  not  give  him 
oxen  and  other  beasts,  birds  and  sweet  wine,  and  other  things. 
Moreover,  while  he  was  on  his  journey  back  to  Egypt,  and  while  I 
was  on  my  way  to  the  king,  I  met  with  him  on  the  road,  and  I 
lent  him  horses  and  mules  which  he  needed  for  his  journey,  and  he 
himself  greeted  me  and  received  me  as  though  he  were  my  father 
and  my  mother.  But  in  spite  of  this  my  lord  doth  write  to  me 
saying,  '  Thou  didst  turn  away  from  the  presence  of  Khani.'  But 
thy  gods  know,  and  the  Sun-god  knoweth,  that  I  was  not  in  the  city 
of  Tunip  when  he  arrived." 

1  For  cognate  forms  of  this  name  compare  ~W ,  Jeremiah  xxviii.  1  ;  **i]L  and 


a  Compare  Syr. 

^\  /W«V\A 

3  The  Egyptian  ^  \\          &ZA    Tunep. 

*  In  Babylonian  Bi-ti-Ilu;  cf.  the  Hebrew  "?8-in?,  probably  from  an  earlier  form 


SUMMARY    OF    CONTEXTS. 

Pars.  V  and  VI  refer  to  some  observations,  unfortunately  un- 
known to  us,  which  the  king  of  Egypt  had  made  concerning  the  city  of 
Snmuru.  Aziru  replies  that  the  Kings  of  Nukhashshi1  have  ever  been 
hostile  to  him,  and  that  by  the  order  of  Khatib  2  they  had  captured 
all  his  cities,  which  up  to  the  present  time  they  had  not  given  back  (?). 
He  promises  that  he  will  make  them  restore  them  speedily.  He 
adds  that  Khatib  has  carried  off  half  of  the  king's  property  which 
was  under  his  care,  and  all  the  gold  and  all  the  silver  which  the 
king  had  sent  to  him. 

Par.  VII  answers  the  king's  question  :  —  "  Why  hast  thou 
received  the  messenger  of  the  king  of  the  land  of  Khatti,  and  my 
messenger  thou  hast  not  received  ?"  Aziru  craftily  replies,  "  This 
is  the  country  of  my  lord,  and  the  king  my  lord  hath  appointed  me 
one  of  the  governors  therein  "  ;  implying  that  he  was  only  one  of 
the  king's  servants,  and  was  bound  to  receive  in  the  king's  name 
whosoever  came  into  the  land.  The  second  part  of  the  king's 
question  Aziru  omits  to  answer. 

Par.  VIII  announces  the  despatch  of  this  letter  by  the  hands 
of  the  Egyptian  messenger,  with  presents  consisting  of  ships,  choice 
oil,  weapons,  etc. 

36.  —  Letter  from  Akizzi,  governor  of  the  city  of  Katna,3  to 
Amenophis  III. 

It  was  divided  apparently  into  eleven  paragraphs,  the  chief 
contents  being  as  follows  :  — 

Pars.  I  and  II.  Greeting  of  Akizzi  to  the  "  son  of  the  Sun-god," 
his  lord,  followed  by  protestations  of  fidelity  to  the  king  and  wishes 
for  the  success  of  eveiything  that  he  may  undertake. 

Par.  III.  In  times  of  old,  ever  since  his  fathers  became  vassals 
of  the  King  of  Egypt,  his  land  has  belonged  to  Egypt  ;  his  city 
Katna  and  he  are  now  the  loyal  followers  of  Amenophis. 


1  Le.,  the  Egyptian    1     [1  ^\  S  ^\  IQI  &^J  ,  or  (I  -  M  ^K  Q  ^  fc~J  ,  Anaukas; 

AA/WVN    i     fi  ur^   I  I  -21  I 

Brugsch,  Geog.  Inschriften,  II,  Taf.  XIX,  No.  97. 

2  With  this  name  cf.  Syr.   ^]&L  (?). 

3  Compare  the  Syriac  VAr>.  Persian  &^<\3  =  the  Kava  (or  Xna)  T//S  ra\<Xo/a* 
of  St.  John  ii.  1. 


Ixvi  TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 

Par.  IV.  When  the  king's  soldiers  and  chariots  and  horses  came 
to  his  country,  he  gave  them  meat  and  drink,  oxen,  oil,  honey,  and 
everything  that  they  needed.  If  Amenophis  doubts  his  word,  let 
him  enquire  of  his  officers  concerning  its  truth. 

Par.  V.  All  lands  tremble  at  the  name  of  the  soldiers  and 
chariots  of  Egypt.  If  the  king  will  send  chariots  and  horses  within 
the  year,  all  the  countries  round  about  will  acknowledge  him  as  lord, 
and  he  will  also  be  able  to  take  possession  of  the  land  of  Nukhashshi. 
The  exact  sense  of  the  next  sentence  is  obscured  by  a  break  in  the 
text  of  lines  22  and  23,  but  the  drift  seems  to  be  that  if  the  troops 
of  Amenophis  delay  for  any  great  number  of  days  Aziru  will  gain 
possession  of  the  land. 

Par.  VI.  If  the  soldiers  and  chariots  of  Amenophis  do  not  set 
out  for  Katna  within  this  year,  Akizzi  will  not  be  able  to  defend  his 
city  against  Aziru. 

Pars.  VII  [and  VIII  ?]  are  wanting. 

Par.  IX.  In  days  of  old  the  King  of  Khatti  was  a  vassal  (?)  of 
the  King  of  Egypt,  but  now  he  has  wasted  with  fire  the  cities  under 
the  protection  of  Egypt,  and  he  has  seized  the  gods  of  Egypt,  and 
made  prisoners  of  its  liegemen. 

Par.  X.  Certain  people  of  the  city  of  Katna  have  been  made 
prisoners,  and  carried  away  captive  by  Aziru.  Let  Amenophis  either 
send  troops  to  rescue  them  or  money  to  ransom  them. 

Par  XL  This  paragraph  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  in  the 
Tell  el-Amarna  tablets,  as  it  suggests  the  origin  of  the  worship  of  the 
Sun-god  in  Egypt.  Akizzi  states  that  Shamash,  the  Sun-god,  the 
god  of  his  fathers,  became  also  the  god  of  the  ancestors  of  Amenophis, 
and  that  they  called  themselves  after  his  name.  This  clearly  has 
reference  to  the  title  "  son  of  the  Sun  "  which  was  adopted  by  nearly 
every  king  of  Egypt,  and  indicates  that  Akizzi  believed  that  the 
worship  of  the  Sun  was  introduced  into  Egypt  from  Asia.  The 
King  of  Khatti  has  carried  off  the  image  of  the  Sun-god  from 
Katna ;  Akizzi  desires  that  the  image  of  the  god  of  his  father 
shall  return  to  him,  and  he  prays  the  king  to  give  heed  to  this 
matter,  and  to  let  him  have  as  much  gold  as  is  needful  to  fulfil 


SUMMARY   OF   CONTENTS.  Ixvii 

his  desire.  If  Amenophis  will  do  this,  surely  then  "  the  name 
of  my  lord  may,  as  in  times  of  old,  be  taken  from  the  name  of  the 
Snn-god." 

37. — Letter  from  Akizzi,  governor  of  the  city  of  Katna,  to 
Amenophis  III. 

The  name  of  the  writer  is  almost  entirely  defaced,  and  only  traces 
remain  of  the  last  character,  which  appears  to  have  been  zi.  There 
can  hardly  be  a  doubt  that  this  and  the  preceding  letter  are  from 
the  same  person,  for  the  general  shape  of  the  two  tablets  and  the 
style  of  the  writing  are  identical ;  there  is  a  margin  on  the  left  hand 
side  of  the  obverse  and  reverse  in  each  tablet ;  the  text  in  each  is 
divided  in  a  particular  manner  into  paragraphs,  which  generally 
begin  with  the  same  word  in  each  ;  and  the  city  of  Katna  is 
mentioned  in  both  letters. 

This  letter  is  divided  into  eleven  paragraphs.  The  text  of  the 
obverse  is  much  mutilated,  and  no  connected  sense  can  be  made  out 
of  paragraphs  II- V. 

Par.  I  contains  the  salutation,  which  may  be  restored  from  that 
of  the  preceding  letter.  Pars.  II-V  refer  to  certain  disputes  be- 
tween Akizzi  and  the  King  of  Khatti,  in  consequence  of  certain 
orders  given  to  Akizzi  by  Amenophis ;  and  Akizzi  appears  to  ask 
Amenophis  for  troops  to  defend  the  country.  In  Par.  V  a  certain 
Aitugama  is  mentioned ;  and  a  list  of  objects  w^hich  were  carried 
off  by  the  enemy  is  given. 

Par.  VI.  Tiuwatti,  governor  of  the  city  of  Lapana,1  and  Arzawya, 
governor  of  the  city  of  Eukhizi,1  have  entered  into  a  league  with 
Aitugama,  and  have  wasted  the  countries  of  the  king  with  fire. 

Par.  VII.  The  King  of  Nukhashshi,  the  King  of  Ni,2  the  King  of 

1  These  cities  are  not  mentioned  elsewhere  in  the  Tell  el-Amarna  tablets,  and  their 
site  is,  at  present,  unknown ;  names  like  Aitugama  and  Tiuwatti,  if  these  transliterations 
be  correct,  appear  not  to  be  Semitic. 


2  In  Egyptian  [1  (I  1  t^^i    NL    This  city  was  situated  near  the  Euphrates, 

and  as  early  as  the  reign  of  Thothmes  I.,  about  B.C.  1633,  probably  marked  the 
boundary  of  the  Egyptian  territory  on  the  east.     The  inscription  on  the  tomb  of 

t"  2 


jxviiii  TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 

Zinzar,  and  the  king  of  the  land  of  Kinanat  (Canaan  (?) )  are,  like 
himself,  the  friends  and  servants  of  the  king,  his  lord. 

Par.  VIII.  If  Arnenophis  feels  himself  able  to  send  troops  to  the 
countries  of  these  kings,  let  him  send  them  without  delay,  and  let 
them  go  there  to  establish  a  league  (?)  between  those  kings  and  him 
self.  If  he  wishes  them  to  give  him  gifts  or  tribute,  let  him  send 
his  ambassador  with  his  troops,  to  take  back  whatever  the  king 
desires. 

Par.  IX.  If  Amenophis  cares  for  the  people  of  these  lands,  let 
him  send  troops  and  messengers. 

Par.  X.  Let  the  king  know  that  Arzawya,  governor  of  the  city 
of  Rukhizi,  and  Tiuwatti,  governor  of  the  city  of  Lapana,  who  are 
now  dwelling  in  the  country  of  Ubi,1  which  belongs  to  the  King 
of  Egypt,  and  Dasha,  who  is  dwelling  in  the  land  of  Am,  are  sending 
daily  to  Aitugama,  and  are  advising  him  to  "go  and  [capture]  the 
whole  country  of  Ubi." 


Amen-em-heb  at  Karnak  states  that  Thothmes  III.,  about  B.C.  1600,  slew  120  elephants 
nearNi  for  the  sake  of  their  ivory  lix  il  A  @  T  I  v\  k?~^  *"  1  *  Q  •  /wwvs 

,*JJ  X  I  ac~^         l\  I  ^3     77       ATO    |     Jj     ^     T  |  |  | 

(^Egf.  Zeitschrift,  1873,  p.  5),  and  in  the  thirty-third  year  of  his  reign,  having  crossed 
over  to  the  eastern  side  of  the  Euphrates,  "  he  set  up  his  memorial  slab  in  Neherna 
(Mesopotamia)  to  enlarge  the  boundaries  of  Egypt"  jl  £^  j  "v\  (|  *~-^  i\ 

the  side  of  the  stele  set  up  by  his  ancestor  Thothmes  I.  (Brugsch,  Geschichte  JEgyptens, 
Leipzig,  1877,  p.  312).  When  Amenophis  II.  made  an  expedition  to  Mesopotamia  in 
the  early  years  of  bis  reign,  he  arrived  on  the  10th  of  the  month  Hathor  at  "  the  city 
of  Ni,  and  behold  the  Asiatics  of  this  town,  men  as  well  as  women  [were]  upon  their 

-Q  ^-^  0.   ft  \>  /WW\A  f\r\  r\  r\        IWWNA  ^ Q 

walls  to  praise  his  maiestv "    A5\  <-^=^3  U        /WWVN  ty^  II    A  1k    /^wwv  F-— \ 

Pm        4 "  I          ^  TI        1 1       Jb          o 

(Maspero,  jEg.  Zeitschrift,  1879,  p.  57, 1.  11). 

1  I.e.,  «  Hobah,  which  is  on  the  left  hand  of  Damascus,"  tfppl*?  ^Nb'^9  "ipt  n?in, 
(Genesis  xiv.  15),  and  the  Egyptian  |J  ^ ,   Brugsch,  Geog.  Inschriften,  II,  Taf.  XXII, 

No.  204.  Line  63  of  this  letter  also  states  that  Damascus  was  situated  in  the  laud 
of  Hobah. 


SUMMARY    OF    CONTENTS. 

Par.  XI.  Just  as  Damascus,1  which  is  situated  in  the  country  of 
Ubi,  is  terror-stricken  at  the  league  of  the  enemy,  and  is  lifting  up 
its  hands  in  supplication  at  the  feet  of  the  king,  so  likewise  does  the 
city  of  Katna  lift  up  its  hands.  He  begs  the  king  to  give  life  to  his 
messenger  by  granting  his  petition  ;  and  if  only  he  will  send  troops 
to  Katna,  he  will  be  able  to  keep  his  hold  upon  the  city. 

38.  —  Letter  from   Shubandi,2  the   governor  of  a  city,  to   the 
King  of  Egypt. 

After  lengthy  expressions  of  loyalty  to  the  king,  he  acknowledges 
the  receipt  of  a  despatch  from  him  ;  and,  in  obedience  to  his 
commands,  which  he  has  fully  understood,  he  is  guarding  the 
territory  under  his  charge  with  all  diligence. 

39.  —  Letter  from  Shubandi  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

After  the  usual  salutations,  he  acknowledges  the  receipt  of 
instructions  which  the  king  has  sent  him,  and  he  is  watching  with  all 
diligence  the  king's  country  under  his  charge. 

40.  —  Letter  from  Shubandi  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

Serious  illness  has  prevented  his  fulfilling  the  duties  of  the  govern- 
ment and  defending  the  cities  referred  to  in  the  king's  despatch. 
Because  of  the  increasing  hostility  of  the  foe,  he  has  appointed  Abdi 
tnilki  to  carry  out  his  orders,  and  he  will  send  him  to  meet  the  king 
when  he  is  about  to  come.  The  text  of  the  concluding  portion  of  the 
letter  is  much  mutilated,  but  the  lines  appear  to  have  had  reference 
to  the  enemy's  attacks. 

1  In  Babylonian  and  Assyrian,  Di-ma-ash-ki,  Di-mash-ka;  see  Rawlinson,  Cunei- 
form Inscriptions,  Vol.  I,  pi.  35,  No.  1,  1L  16,  21;  VoL  V,  pL  9,  11.  8,  12;  K.  530 
(Catalogue,  p.  124),  K.  542  (Catalogue,  p.  126),  etc.  The  cognate  forms  of  this  name 


are:  Heb.  p£T?1,  Syr.  ,£DQnmlD>  .  »OQmk>J>»  Arab,  (j^cj  (Yakut,  Vol.  II,  p.  587  ff.; 
Bekri,  p.  348),  Gr.  Aa/unr/ro's,  Eg.  ]  jjj  ~^~  ^>.  It  seems  that  the  Damascus  of 
the  text  (whether  it  was  on  the  site  of  the  modern  city  or  not)  was  situated  near 

^v        SHAAMW 

the  country  called  by  the  Egyptians     ca  V\    D      Tunep,  in  Babylonian  .-py 

n  is^Nfl 
' 


•  Two  letters  of  this  officer  are  preserved  at  Gizeh  (B.,  Nos.  116  and  117),  and 
one  at  Berlin  (B.,  No.  120). 


Ixx  TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

41. — Letter  from  the  inhabitants  of  the  city  of  Tunip  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

The  city  and  country  of  Tunip  are  first  mentioned  in  Egyptian 
annals  of  the  reign  of  Thothmes  III.  (about  B.C.  1600).  This  king 
captured  the  fortress  of  Tunip  on  his  fifth  expedition,  which  took 
place  in  the  twenty-ninth  year  of  his  reign,  and  made  prisoner  its 
governor,  and  carried  off  much  booty,  which  he  sent  in  ships  to  the  land 
of  Egypt  (Lepsius,  Ausivahl,  pi.  XII).  Twelve  years  later  Thothmes 
utterly  destroyed  Tunip,  because  its  inhabitants  had  joined  the  great 
league  of  Syrian  cities  against  the  power  of  Egypt.  About  one 
hundred  years  later  Amenophis  III.  captured  Tunip,  Kadesh,  and  the 
other  principal  cities  of  the  league  (Lepsius,  Denkmdler,  III,  Bl.  88a). 
In  the  fifth  year  of  the  reign  of  Rameses  II.,  about  B.C.  1333,  Tunip 
was  again  captured  by  the  Egyptians  (Recueil  de  travaux,  tome  VIII, 
p.  127).  It  lay  to  the  south  of  Aleppo  (cf.  J  ^>  ^^  ,  ^ 

rf\  AAAAAA 

^  v\    n     Chilbu  her  meht  Tunep,  "  Aleppo  to  the  north  of  Tunip  "), 

/"%  (2*  AAAAAA 

and  on  the  borders  of  the  land  of  the  Cheta   (cf. 


AAAAAA    AAAAAA 
f~D 


em  uu  en  tema  en  Tunep  em  pa  ta  en  Neheren,  "  Cheta  which  is  on 
the  border  of  the  city  of  Tunip  in  the  land  of  Mesopotamia  "  ; 
Brugsch,  Recueil,  tome  II,  54,  No.  2,  1.  4).  There  seems  to  be  no  proof, 
at  present,  that  Tunip  is  identical  with  the  city  of  Damascus,  but 
there  is  no  doubt  that  these  places  were  situated  near  each  other. 

The  letter  is  divided  into  eleven  paragraphs  :  — 
Par.  I  contains  the  usual  salutations. 

Par.  II.  The  city  of  Tunip  appeals  to  the  King  of  Egypt  and  asks 
if  it  was  not  in  times  of  old  under  the  protection  of  Manakhbirya  — 
a  name  which  appears  to  represent  the  prenomen  of  Thothmes  III., 


Men-cheper-Rd     Qe^3$    ,  or  that  of  Thothmes  IV.,  Men-cheperu-Rd 


1  According-  to  a  Berlin  tablet  (No.  30,  obv.  4)  the  name  appears  to  be  spelt 
Ma-na-akh-bi-ya,  the  r  of  cheper  or  chepei-u  being  unrepresented  in  the  cuneiform 
transcript. 


SUMMARY    OF   CONTENTS. 

Par.  III.  The  gods  worshipped  in  the  city  of  Tunip  are  the  same 
as  those  of  Egypt,  and  the  form  of  worship  of  the  two  countries 
is  the  same  ;  '  let  the  king  consult  his  ancient  documents,  and  see  if 
Tunip  has  not  always  been  loyal  to  Egypt. 

Par.  IV.  They  have  sent  twenty  tablets  to  the  king,  and  the 
messengers  who  carried  them  are  detained  in  Egypt  ;  they  ask  the 
king  to  send  one  of  them  back  to  them,  viz.,  a  certain  Yaki-Adda. 

Par.  V.  If  the  king  is  willing  for  Yaki-Adda  to  return  to  Tunip, 
why  should  he  be  delayed  in  coming  ? 

Pars.  VI  and  VII  seem  to  indicate  that  the  messengers  with  the 
tablets  from  Tunip  have  been  intercepted  by  Aziru  in  the  country  of 
Khatat,2  and  that  the  inhabitants  fear  that,  as  he  has  gathered 
together  his  soldiers  and  chariots,  he  will  come  and  do  to  Tunip  what 
he  did  to  the  city  of  Ni.3 

Par.  VIII.  When  the  King  of  Egypt  hears  the  news  of  the 
troubles  which  Aziru  has  caused,  he  will  be  grieved  just  as  they 
are.  They  beg  that  the  king  will  send  help  to  them. 

Par.  IX.  The  king  will  be  grieved  to  hear  also  that  when  Aziru 
obtained  possession  of  the  city  of  Sumuru,  which  belonged  to  the 
king,  the  people  became  traitors  and  did  as  it  pleased  Aziru. 

Par.  X.  "And  now  thy  city  Tunip  is  weeping,  its  tears  are 
flowing,"  and  the  strength  of  the  people  is  not  enough  to  prevent 
its  capture. 

Par.  XI.  They  have  now  sent  to  their  lord  and  king,  the  King 
of  Egypt,  as  many  as  twenty  despatches,  but  not  one  answer  from 
the  king  has  reached  them. 

1  Thothmes  III.,  on  the  capture  of  Tunip  in  the  29th  year  of  his  reign,  entered  the 
chamber  where  offerings  were  usually  made,  and  sacrificed  oxen,  calves,  ducks,  etc., 


'  * 


to  [Amen]  and  Harmachis  (cf.          \  A    *      <zi>  V  r/ 

t&  Ja*&       A  rJl 

''»   Ufad»^rok«n    Ji    V\      '^  1\      H 

Ti   ^y^y^y$5Sg£s?§£   j££   _£T  ^  (  -  )  JJ}^.  1 

Lepsius,  Auswahl,  pi.  XII,  1.  2  ;  Brugsch,  Recueil,  tome  II,  pi.  56,  No.  6  ;  and  Mariette, 
Karnak,  pi.  13,  1.  2).  This  seems  to  have  been  the  foundation  of  the  worship  of  gods 
of  Egypt  in  Tunip,  and  it  is  probable  that  the  inhabitants  of  Tunip.  refer  to  this 
event  in  their  letter. 

1  Equivalent  to  Khatti  (?). 
For  note  on  this  city  see  above,  p.  Ixvii,  note  2. 


Ixxii  TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

42. — Letter  from  the  city  of  Irkata,1  near  Sumuru,  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

"Thus  saith  this  letter  from  the  city  of  Irkata  to  the  king  our 
lord  :  '  The  city  of  Irkata  and  the  nobles  (?)  thereof  prostrate 
themselves  at  the  feet  of  the  king  their  lord  seven  times  and  seven 
times.' "  The  people  of  the  city  of  Irkata  declare  to  the  Sun-god 
that  they  know  the  wishes  of  the  king,  their  lord,  and  that  they 
are  therefore  diligently  guarding  their  city.  The  king  sent  his 
messenger  Abbikha  to  them  with  orders  that  they  were  to  guard 
their  city  against  the  followers  of  [Abd-Ashirta],2  the  enemies  of 
the  king,  and  they  now  wish  to  assure  him  that  they  are  his 
faithful  servants.  In  proof  thereof,  they  send  thirty  (?)  horses, 
etc.,  as  gifts.  By  this  action  they  hope  that  the  king  will  learn 
what  their  disposition  is  towards  him.  The  King  of  Egypt  appears 
to  have  sent  a  despatch  to  a  certain  country  called  Shanku,  where- 
upon the  inhabitants  of  a  city  who  were  previously  well  disposed 
to  those  of  Irkata  suddenly  became  hostile  to  them.  They  there- 
fore entreat  the  king  to  send  help  to  his  servants,  that  they  may 
overthrow  the  king's  foes  and  make  them  "  eat  dust."  They  have 
shut  their  gates  against  the  king's  enemies,  and  they  assure  the 
king  of  their  urgent  need,  because  the  foe  is  mighty  against  them. 

4-3- — Letter  from  Namyawiza  (?),  governor  of  the  city  of 
Kumiti  (?),  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

The  text  is  broken  off  both  at  the  beginning  and  end.  The 
rebels  have  attacked  a  city,  and  have  captured  the  horses  and 
chariots  therein,  and  have  declared  themselves  independent  of  the 
King  of  Egypt.  Suqh  things  being  done,  Namyawiza  feels  as  if 
he  were  dead;  and  he  has  no  followers.  Behold,  too,  Biridashwi 
has  fomented  rebellion  in  the  city  of  Inuamma,3  which  has  closed 

1  With  this  name  compare  the  Egyptian    M  *ra    ^    <K\   c      '    Alqaj,   Lepsius 
Denkn&ler,  Abth.  Ill,  Bl.  252-253  a. 

2  Compare  B.,  No.  77, 1.  9  ff.,  where  it  is  said  that  the  followers  of  Abd-Ashii  ta 
have  departed  to  take  the  cities  of  Sumuru  and  Irkata. 

3  Compare  the  name  of  the  fortress  in  Upper  Rethennu 
aa-mau,  Brugsch,  Geogr.  Inschriflen,  II,  40. 


SUMMARY    OF   CONTENTS.  Ixxiii 

its  gates  against  him.  Biridashwi  has  captured  the  chariots  belong- 
ing to  the  city  of  Ashtarti,1  and  has  given  them  to  the  rebels 
instead  of  to  the  king.  The  governor  of  the  city  of  Buzruna 
and  the  governor  of  the  city  of  Khalunni  made  a  league  with 
Biridashwi,  and  determined  to  slay  Namyawiza.  Namyawiza,  how- 
ever, took  refuge  in  Damascus,  and,  when  attacked  by  Arzawya, 
declared  himself  to  be  a  servant  of  the  King  of  Egypt.  Arzawya 
then  went  to  the  city  of  Gizza,  made  prisoners  the  followers  of 
Azi[ru  ?],  and,  having  captured  the  city  of  Shaddu,  gave  it  into  the 
hands  of  the  rebels,  instead  of  to  the  King  of  Egypt.  Moreover, 
Itakkama  ravaged  the  country  of  Gizza,  and  Arzawya,  in  league 
with  Biridashwi,  wasted  the  country  of  Abitu.  Namyawiza  prays 
the  king  to  send  troops  to  defend  his  territory.  He  will  meanwhile 
guard  the  city  of  Kuiniti,  hoping  soon  to  see  the  arrival  of  the 
Egyptian  troops. 

44. — Portion  of  a  letter  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

The  text  is,  presumably,  part  of  a  letter  which  covered  more  than 
one  tablet,  but  the  name  of  the  person  addressed  and  that  of  the 
writer  are  wanting,  and  the  customary  salutations  are  omitted. 
It  appears  that  a  certain  Khaya  who  had  promised  to  send  ships, 
manned  with  their  full  fighting  crews,  to  the  country  of  Amurri,  had 
failed  to  keep  his  word,  owing  apparently  to  the  machinations  of 
Abd-Ashirta.  The  ships  from  Arvad  which  have  been  left  in  the 
writer's  charge  are  without  crews,  and  he  therefore  recommends 
the  king  to  use  the  other  ships  from  Arvad  which  he  has  with 
him  hi  the  land  of  Egypt.  The  sense  of  the  next  few  lines  is 
obscured  by  breaks  in  the  text,  which  here  contains  a  speech  of 
Khaya,  ending  with  the  question,  "  To  whom  do  the  people  of  the 
cities  of  Sidon  and  Beyrut  belong,  if  not  to  the  king  ? "  The  writer 
advises  the  king  to  use  his  authority,  and  to  appoint  for  himself  in 
each  city  a  man  who  shall  have  charge  of  the  shipping,  so  as  to 
counteract  the  influence  of  Abd-Ashirta  in  preventing  the  manning 

1  I.e.,  the  city  of"  Ishtar";   the  Egyptian  form  of  the  name  of  this   goddess 

is  ;-»— ^  (I  CN  Pn    Astharthet. 

k 


TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

and  departure  of  ships.  The  King  of  Egypt  had  ordered  Sidon, 
Beyrut  and  Arvad  to  send  a  number  of  ships  to  Amurri,  but  never 
a  ship  came,  and  therefore  the  writer  advises  him  to  seize  Abd- 
Ashirta  and  to  keep  him  under  guard  near  him,  and  to  pay  heed  to 
the  words  of  his  faithful  servant. 

45. — Letter  from  the  governor l  of  the  city  of  Byblos  (?)  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

He  complains  that  the  king  does  not  trust  his  city  Byblos,  the 
city  of  his  fathers,  and  that  Aziru  the  rebel  has  made  a  league  with 
the  king  of  the  land  of  Ammiya,  and  the  king  of  the  land  of  Nl,  and 
that  he  is  acting  contrary  to  the  interests  of  the  king  in  the  king's 
countries.  The  next  eighteen  lines  are  mutilated,  and  it  is  im- 
possible to  make  connected  sense  from  what  remains.  He  is  still 
the  king's  faithful  servant,  and  asks  him  to  send  a  company  of  thirty 
[or]  fifty  men  to  protect  Byblos,  and  entreats  him  not  to  place  any 
trust  in  anything  that  Aziru  tells  him.  He  himself  will  send  to  the 
king  any  news  he  can  collect  concerning  the  rebel  Aziru. 

4-6. — Letter  from  a  governor  of  a  city  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

The  people  of  the  country  of  Kinza  made  a  league  with  the 
[King  of]  Khatti,  and  set  out  to  capture  certain  cities  under  the 
rule  of  the  King  of  Egypt  in  the  country  of  Am.  He  has,  however, 
defended  these  cities  against  them,  and  is  holding  them  for  the  King 
of  Egypt  as  before. 

The  text  of  this  tablet  is  defaced  in  places,  and  the  parts  of  the 
lines  on  the  obverse  which  run  round  to  the  reverse  have  been 
wilfully  defaced  by  cutting  away  the  edges  of  the  tablet. 

47. — Letter  from  Abdu-kar-shi  (?),  governor  of  the  city  of 
Khasur,2  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

1  The  beginning  of  this  letter  may  be  restored  according  to  the  reading  of  B., 
No.  91,  1.  3,  where,  however,  the  order  of  the  names  of  the  city  of  Gebal  (?)  and 
the  governor  is  reversed. 


2  The  Semitic  forms  of  the  name  are  :  Heb.  "livn,  Syr.  jo^»l ,  Gr.  'A<™y>,  and  the 
Egyptian  "     =  I  ^  -^    ]       or  *==  I  Ik    <^>    ]       Rai'are. 


SUMMAEY   OF   CONTENTS.  IxXV 

He  will  diligently  guard  the  cities  of  the  king  until  his  arrival. 
AVhen  the  despatch  of  the  king  came  to  him,  it  was  as  if  Shamash 
the  Sun-god  had  risen  upon  him  and  was  shining  upon  him  with  all 
his  noonday  splendour.  He  is  making  all  arrangements  necessary  for 
the  king's  coming.  After  lines  15-17,  which  express  his  joy  at  the 
arrival  of  the  king's  messenger  with  the  glad  tidings  of  his  master's 
coming,  the  text  is  so  mutilated  that  it  is  impossible  to  make 
any  connected  sense  out  of  it. 

4-8. — Letter  from  Abdu-kar-shi  (?),  governor  of  the  city  of 
Khasur,  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

He  is  a  faithful  follower  of  His  Majesty,  and  is  upholding  his 
authority  in  his  own  city  and  in  the  other  cities  subject  to  the  king. 
He  asks  the  king  to  decide  what  he  is  to  do  in  respect  of  the  city. 

49. — Letter  from  Yapakhi,  governor  of  the  city  of  Gezer,1  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

After  the  usual  compliments,  he  acknowledges  the  receipt  of 
orders  from  the  king's  envoy,  which  he  has  fully  carried  out.  He  begs 
the  king  to  take  active  measures  for  the  protection  of  Gezer  and  the 
country  round  about,  for  the  king's  enemies  are  growing  powerful, 
and  he  fears  that  they  wiD  soon  overcome  him. 

50. — Letter  from  Yapakhi,  governor  of  the  city  of  Gezer,  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

After  the  usual  compliments,  he  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  a 
despatch  from  the  king,  and  informs  him  that  his  youngest  brother 
has  left  him  and  joined  his  forces  to  those  of  the  enemy  in  the  city 
of  Mu[ru  ?]khazi.  The  enemy  are  acting  against  him  ;  he  therefore 
begs  for  instructions  how  to  deal  with  his  brother  and  his  allies. 

51. — Letter  from  Yapakhi,  governor  of  the  city  of  Gezer,  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

1  The  I"  of  Joshua  x.  33,  Syr.  jj*   or  1**U»,  Gr.  Td^a. 

X-2 


Ixxvi  TELL    EL-AMARNA.    TABLETS. 

The  text  cannot,  with  our  present  knowledge  of  the  language 
employed  in  these  tablets,  be  translated,  owing  to  the  very  rare  words 
and  unknown  ideographs  which  occur  in  it.  Yapakhi  acknowledges 
the  receipt  of  a  despatch  from  the  king,  which  pleased  him  greatly. 
He  then  appears  to  refer  to  events  of  a  hostile  character  in  a 
neighbouring  district,  and  to  the  arrival  of  help  from  the  king, 
whereby  his  mind  was  set  at  rest. 

52.  —  Letter  from  Widya,  governor  of  the  city  of  Askelon,1  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

He  is  vigilantly  guarding  the  city  under  his  charge  ;  he  is  also 
sending  to  the  king  meat  and  drink,  oxen,  etc.,  together  with  his 
customary  tribute,  apparently  in  answer  to  a  remonstrance  from  the 
king. 

53,  —  Letter  from  Widya,  governor  of  the  city  of  Askelon,  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

He  is  vigilantly  guarding  the  city  under  his  charge.  In  answer 
to  a  remonstance  from  the  king,  he  sends  gifts,  including  women  (?). 

The  king  is  addressed  by  the  titles  :  1.  Shamash  sha  ishtu  sami, 
"Sun-god  from  heaven"  =  Egyptian  '  Jfl  ^z^  Q  ltd  neb  pet, 


"  Ra,  lord  of  heaven  "  ;  2.  mar  Samash,  "  Son  of  the  Sun  "=  Egyptian 
"^C  se  Rd,  "  Son  of  the  Sun  ";  and  3.  sha  tirdm  Shamash,  "  whom  the 
Sun-god  loveth"=  Egyptian  A^rt-ffl  meri  Rd,  "beloved  of  Ra." 

54.  —  Letter  from  Widya,  governor  of  the  city  of  Askelon,  to 
the  King  of  Egypt. 

1  In    Babylonian     and    Assyrian,    Is-ka-(aT)-lu-n'a  ;     see    Rawlinson,   Cuneiform 
Inscriptions,  Vol.  I,  pi.  38,  11.  58  and  63  ;  Vol.  Ill,  pi.  16,  col.  5,  1.  15.    An  inhabitant  of 

Askelon  was  called  As-ka-lu-na-ai  (compare  Phoen.  tJ^ptPK,  Syr.  ]»  in\r^»]  V  ibid., 
Vol.  II,  pi.  67,  1.  61.  The  other  Semitic  forms  of  the  name  of  the  town  are  :  Heb. 


l^K,  Syr.    .ovsrt»V,   l3f^snn»y  Arab.   ^uHi  (one  of  the  "brides  of  Syria" 

>•'  * 
AuJt  <jwj>y*f  Y&Mt,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  673,  Bekri,  p.  683),  Gr.  'hcKa\wv  ;    the  Egyptian  is 

N  .  r,         ,<n  $*~~f\  /wwvv       ^ 

Atkelna.  or  A  v\  "         1J\  Askalna. 

• 


SUMMARY   OF    CONTENTS. 

In  obedience  to  the  king's  orders,  he  has  supplied  his  soldiers 
with  meat,  drink,  oil,  oxen,  etc.,  and  everything  that  they 
needed  he  gave  unto  them.  "  How  is  it  possible  for  me  to  be  an 
officer  of  the  king,  my  lord,  the  Son  of  the  Sun,  and  not  to  obey  his 
words  1 " 

55. — Letter  from  Pu-Adda,  governor  of  the  city  of  Urza,1  to 
the  King  of  Egypt. 

He  is  vigilantly  guarding  the  territory  under  his  care.  Ap- 
parently to  disprove  a  charge  of  neglect  of  duty,  he  sends  an  extract 
from  a  letter  which  he  had  written  to  a  neighbouring  governor  named 
Shashikhashi(?),  warning  him  not  to  help  certain  men  on  their  way, 
as  they  were  enemies  of  the  king.  He  concludes  by  protesting  his 
devotion. 

56. — Letter  from  Pu-Adda,  governor  of  the  city  of  Urza,  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

He  is  vigilantly  guarding  the  territory  under  his  charge,  and 
passes  day  and  night  in  carrying  out  the  orders  of  the  king.  It 
appears  that  the  king  remonstrated  with  him  as  to  his  conduct 
towards  a  certain  officer  named  Rianapa,-  who,  as  we  know  from  a 
letter  of  Widya,3  had  been  appointed  governor  of  a  neighbouring 
city.  Hianapa's  duties  probably  included  the  supervision  of  Widya, 
Pu-Adda,  and  other  governors  of  the  Egyptian  territory  along  the 
coast  of  Syria.  Pu-Adda  now  assures  the  king  that  he  will  regard 
Rianapa  as  His  Majesty,  "mighty  like  the  Sun-god  in  heaven," 
especially  as  he  has  been  commanded  by  the  king  so  to  do. 

57. — Letter  from  Yabitiri4  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 
He  professes  his  devotion  to  the  king.     "  I  look  here  and  I  lock 
there,  and  behold  it  is  dark ;  but  when  I  look  towards  the  king,  my 

1  The  position  of  this  city  is  unknown. 

2  Compare   the  Egyptian   name  (1    v£       (1  ^&    Rendppd,   Lieblein,   Diet. 

onT  /www       I     P4     D      I    P*l 

5,  p.  297. 

3  Berlin  Tablet,  No.  122, 11.  16ff. 

4  The  name  Yabitiri  is  not  Semitic,  but  may  be  Egyptian. 


Ixxviii  TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 

lord,  it  is  light.  The  tile  which  is  trodden  upon  may  give  way  ;  but 
I  shall  never  give  way  beneath  thy  feet.  Let  the  king,  my  lord, 
ask  his  minister  Yankhamu  if  I  am  feeble,  and  let  him  give  me  leave 
to  come  to  Egypt."  He  wishes  to  leave  Palestine  for  Egypt  in 
order  to  obtain  an  appointment  in  the  immediate  service  of  the 
king,  whom  he  entreats  to  ask  of  Yankhamu  if  he  did  riot  do  his 
duty  well  as  governor  of  Gaza1  and  Joppa.3  He  has  been  in 
command  of  the  king's  soldiers  for  a  long  time,  and  wherever  they 
have  been  he  has  been  with  them.  "  The  yoke  of  the  king,  my  lord, 
is  upon  my  neck,  and  I  will  bear  it." 

58.—  Letter  from  the  king  of  a  district  of  Palestine,  to  the  kings 
of  Canaan,  the  "  servants  "  of  his  "  brother  "  the  King  of  Egypt. 

He  is  about  to  send  his  messenger  Akiya  to  his  "  brother,  the 
King  of  Egypt,"  to  tell  him  that  he,  and  whatever  he  hath,  is  at  his 
disposal.  He  proposes  to  send  his  messenger  by  way  of  the  lands  of 
Canaan,  held  by  native  kings  under  the  rule  of  Egypt,  and  he  has 
instructed  him  to  carry  quickly  to  Egypt  whatever  gifts  the  kings  of 
Canaan  will  entrust  to  him  for  the  King  of  Egypt.  In  conclusion 
he  refers  to  the  fondness  of  Egyptians  for  presents.  Akiya  may  be 
relied  upon  to  use  with  the  best  effect  any  gifts  which  they  may 
place  in  his  hands. 

On  the  lower  part  of  the  Reverse  is  a  faint  impression  of  a 
haematite  Babylonian  cylinder  seal,  which  measured  about  fin.  in 
length  by  -fy  inch  in  diameter,  and  upon  which  was  engraved  four  lines 
of  Babylonian  characters  and  some  winged  figures.  The  seal  made 
one  revolution  and  a  half.  The  one  character  which  can  be  dis- 
tinguished may  be  ^  or 


1  In  Babylonian,  Az-za-ti,  the  n-ty  of  the  Bible,  LXX.  Taga,  Arab.  g-£\  ,  Egyptian 

%k  In     Ls    Kat'athd,   ^z^s  Ng\   ^fcZ*  Kat'ata,  or    S  ^s\    \  <=*  ^c\ 

Kat'etu. 

2  In  Babylonian  and  Assyrian  Ta-ap-pu-u,  or  Ya-pu-u  (see  Rawliuson,  Cuneiform 
Inscriptions  of  Western  Asia,  Vol.  I,  pi.  38,  1.  66),Heb.  iB;,Syr.  **2>ol  orlaoT,  Arab. 

\  XX 

Gb,  (Yakut,  Vol.  IV,  p.  1003),  Egyptian  [j(j°  ^,,  Ipu. 


SUMMARY   OF   CONTENTS. 

59. — Letter  from  Wyashdata,  "  the  faithful  servant  of  the  king," 
to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

All  the  possessions  which  were  entrusted  to  him  have  been  de- 
stroyed by  the  people  of  the  city  of  Tada,1  near  Bey  rut  (?).  They 
have  also  made  a  raid  upon  his  cattle  and  have  carried  them  off. 
He  has  therefore  made  a  defensive  league  with  Biridiwi,  governor  (?) 
of  Megiddo.2 

60. — Letter  from  Bayawi  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

Yankhamu  has  failed  to  do  his  duty  (?),  and  in  consequence  the 
rebels  have  seized  all  the  country  round  about.  He  entreats  the 
king  to  make  his  country  to  "  live  again." 

On  the  Obverse,  at  the  top  left-hand  corner,  appear  to  be  traces 
of  an  Egyptian  seal  impression. 

61. — Letter  from  Labawi,  governor  of  a  city  probably  near 
Jerusalem,  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

He  reports  the  arrival  of  certain  troops,  but  they,  instead  of 
protecting  his  people,  have  dealt  with  them  roughly.  He  is  left 
with  only  one  officer,  and  he  fears  that  this  man  will  slander  him 
to  the  king.  He  will  fight  as  long  as  he  is  able  and  will  encourage 
the  troops.  He  will  never  retreat,  even  the  breadth  of  a  thumb  (?), 
even  if  the  city  were  to  be  taken  twice  over.  The  meaning  of  the 
last  part  of  the  letter  is  obscure. 

62. — Letter  from  Milkili,  governor  of  a  city  probably  near 
Jerusalem,  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

He  informs  the  king  of  an  act  of  tyranny  on  the  part  of  Yankhamu, 
a  high  official  in  the  Egyptian  service.  It  appears  that  Yankhamu, 
after  seizing  Milkili's  goods,  had  forcibly  carried  off  his  wives  and 


1  This  name  is  restored  from  a  tablet  at  Berlin,  B.,  58,  line  80,  in  which  the  city 
is  mentioned  in  connection  with  Bejrut. 

2  See  a  tablet  at  Berlin,  No.  114,  L  4.      This  seems  to  be  the  only  passage 
where  the  city  over  which  Biridiwi  ruled  is  mentioned. 


IxXX  TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

children.  Let  the  king  remember  this  deed  against  Yankhamu,  and 
send  chariots  and  troops  for  Milkili's  protection.  The  conclusion 
seems  to  refer  to  the  king  as  his  only  protector. 

63, — Letter  from  Milkili,  the  governor  of  a  city  probably  near 
Jerusalem,  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

He  has  understood  the  king's  despatch,  and  begs  that  some 
native  Egyptian  soldiers  may  be  sent  to  protect  the  city.  The 
meaning  of  the  last  two  lines  is  doubtful. 

64. — Letter  from  Mut-Adda,  governor  of  a  city,  to  his  superior 
officer,  Yankhamu,  a  high  official  of  the  King  of  Egypt. 

When  he  reports  that  the  enemy  have  disappeared,  it  is  a  certain 
fact  that  they  have  disappeared ;  and  when  he  reports  that  the 
governor  of  the  city  of  Bikhishi  has  fled  before  the  inspector  of  the 
king  (i.e.,  Yankhamu),  it  is  also  certain  that  he  has  fled.  "  May  the 
king,  my  lord,  live  ;  may  the  king,  my  lord,  live  !  "  The  enemy  have 
taken  possession  of  the  city  of  Bikhishi  and  have  occupied  it  for  the 
last  two  months.  If  Yankhamu  does  not  believe  it,  let  him  ask 
Bininima  and  Wishuya  and  others.  The  city  of  Ashtarti  was  safe 
under  the  rule  of  the  Egyptians  until  the  arrival  (?)  of  the  god 
Merodach.  The  following  cities  have  rebelled :  Udumu,1  Aduri,2 
Araru,  Mishtu,  Magdalim,3  Khinianabi,  Sarkisabtat,  Khawini,  and 
Abishima.  The  tablet  which  Yankhamu  had  sent  to  him  he  had 
passed  on  to  the  governor  of  Bikhishi ;  but,  before  Yankhamu  could 
arrive,  the  city  had  been  captured,  and  the  report  of  its  fall  had 
been  brought. 

1  I.e.)  Edom.     In  Babylonian  and  Assyrian.  U-du-mu;  see  Rawlinson,  Cuneiform 
Inscriptions,  Vol.  Ill,  pi.  16,  col.  V,  1.  14;   Vol.  V,  pi.  7,  1.  109,  etc.     The  Semitic  forms 
of  the  name  are:  Heb.  D"Jfc?  (Gen.  xxxvi.   32),   Syr.  U>O>)^  Grr.  'I3ov/ta/a,  and  the 
Egyptian  \\  ^  <-"=^  Jfbu)  jf^vi ,  Atmd  ^Papyrus  Anastasi  VI,  p.  4, 11.  14  and  15). 

2  I.e.,  Addar,  "HK,  Joshua  xv.  3. 

3  I.e.,  the  Edomite  city  ?JM|3  (Gen.  xxxvi.  43),  and  the  ^==  a 
H  of  the  Egyptian  inscriptions. 


SUMMARY    OF   CONTENTS.  Ixxxi 

65. — Letter  from  Shibti-Adda,  an  officer,  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

He  has  understood  the  king's  despatch,  and  in  answer  to  enquiries 
concerning  the  fidelity  of  Yankhamu,  a  high  Egyptian  official,  he 
states  that  he  is  "  a  faithful  servant  of  the  king,  and  the  dust  of  the 
king's  feet."  The  condition  of  the  city  under  his  charge  is  good. 

66. — Letter  from  Shum-Addu,  governor  of  a  city,  to  the  King 
of  Egypt. 

After  salutations,  he  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  a  despatch 
from  the  king  asking  for  grain,  and  informs  him  that  the  men  who 
thresh  corn  have,  during  these  last  days,  driven  away  their  over- 
seers, and  he  cannot  therefore  obey  the  king's  command  ;  he  appeals 
to  the  evidence  of  the  king's  inspector  to  support  his  statement. 
He  appears  to  have  intended  originally  to  add  some  further  remark, 
which  began  with  the  words  u  shumma,  "  and  whether " ;  but, 
changing  his  mind,  he  partially  erased  them. 

67- — Letter  from  Shuardata,  governor  of  a  city,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

Although  he  has  sent  off  every  available  soldier  to  join  the 
Egyptian  troops,  he  is  nevertheless  guarding  the  cities  of  the  king 
as  well  as  he  is  able  ;  he  has  also  sent  gifts  to  the  king.  A  little 
further  on,  he  repeats  his  expressions  of  loyalty  to  the  king,  and 
acknowledges  the  receipt  of  a  despatch  containing  certain  orders. 

The  tablet  upon  which  this  letter  is  written  has  suffered  from 
abrasion,  probably  of  old  standing.  The  corners  have  been  rubbed 
away,  the  writing  on  the  Obverse  is  defaced,  and  on  the  Eeverse 
it  is  almost  entirely  wanting. 

68. — Letter  from  Shuardata,  governor  of  a  city,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

He  is  defenceless,  having  sent  all  his  troops  to  join  the  king's 
army.  He  therefore  prays  the  king  to  deliver  him  and  his  city, 
the  handmaiden  of  the  king,1  out  of  the  hands  of  the  enemy. 

1  For  this  title  of  a  city  compare  No.  28  (above,  p.  lix,  and  note  2). 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

69. — Letter  from  Shuardata,  governor  of  a  city,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

He  is  carrying  out  with  diligence  the  king's  orders. 

70. — Letter  from  Tagi,  the  father-in-law  of  Milkili,  to  the  King 
of  Egypt. 

He  protests  fidelity  to  the  king,  and  is  anxious  that  all  the 
principal  highways  of  the  king  should  continue  to  be  under  the 
superintendence  of  his  "  brother  "  (Milkili  ?),  for  then  not  a  thumb's 
breadth(l)  of  them  would  be  any  longer  unsafe.  Let  the  king  ask  of 
his  own  officer  if,  in  times  past,  the  roads  under  his  charge  have  not 
been  safe.  "  Behold,  we  are  thine,  and  whether  we  raise  our  eyes 
to  heaven,  or  cast  them  down  to  the  earth  beneath,  our  heads  are 
in  thy  hand."  He  repeats  his  prayer  that  the  highways  should  be 
under  his  "friend's"  jurisdiction;  he  himself  is  protecting  the 
interests  of  the  king. 

71. — Letter  from  an  officer  (whose  name  is  lost)  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

A  certain  Biyathe  son  of  Gulati1  had  taken  prisoners  the  troops 
which  the  writer  had  sent  to  Joppa  to  protect  the  king's  interests. 
In  obedience  to  the  king's  orders  to  follow  the  instructions  of  his 
commander,  he  has  delivered  the  city  and  expelled  the  rebel  Biya. 
If  the  king  chooses  to  visit  it  by  day  or  by  night,  he  will  find  it 
prepared  to  receive  him. 

72. —  Continuation  (?)  of  a  letter,  which  apparently  occupied  more 
.than  one  tablet,  from  an  official  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

He  spoke,  it  appears,  to  his  brethren,  saying:  "If  the  gods  of  the 
king,  our  lord,  grant  it,  we  will  capture  Labawi  alive  and  will  bring 
him  before  the  king,  our  lord."  His  mare  was  brought  to  him  and 
he  mounted  her,  and  galloped  off  in  pursuit  of  Labawi,  who  was 
with  an  official  named  Wyashdata.2  When  he  had  come  up  with 

1  This  is  the  name  of  his  mother. 

2  No.  59  was  written  by  this  same  Wyashdata. 


SUMMARY   OF   CONTENTS  Jxxxili 

him  he  learned  that  he  had  already  been  made  prisoner  in  Megiddo  l 
by  Zurata.  He  disputed  the  capture  with  Ziiruta  in  the  name  of  the 
king,  but  Zurata  kept  possession  of  his  prisoner  and  told  him  that 
he  intended  to  send  Labawi  direct  to  Egypt  on  board  ship.  Zurata, 
however,  actually  took  him  to  his  own  house  in  the  city  of  Khinatuna, 
and  set  him  free,  although  he  had  received  the  price  of  the  ransom 
from  the  writer  of  the  letter  ;  and  Labawi  and  a  companion  Adda- 
mikhir  then  went  home.  The  writer  asks  what  he  is  to  do  (i.e.,  in 
order  to  recover  the  money  which  he  has  expended  in  the  king's 
name),  seeing  that  he  has  been  deceived  by  his  comrade  Zurata,  and 
that  Labawi  has  escaped  from  his  hands. 

73. — Letter  from  the  governor  of  a  city  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

By  day  and  by  night  he  is  forced  to  submit  to  the  attacks  of  the 
king's  enemies  upon  the  cities  under  his  charge.  AR  to  the  city  of 
Magdalim,  he  is  unable  to  control  (?)  the  inhabitants.  The  soldiers  of 
the  city  of  Kukbi  have  made  a  league  against  him,  and  there  is  no 
one  to  deliver  him  out  of  their  hands.  The  report  which  Abbikha,2 
an  envoy  in  the  Egyptian  service,  sent  to  the  king,  saying  that  the 
gates  of  all  the  cities  under  his  charge  were  captured  by  the  enemy, 
he  indignantly  asserts  to  be  false.  The  end  of  the  text  is  broken  off. 

74. — Letter  from  Dagaii-takala  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 
He  entreats  him  to  deliver  him  out  of  the  hands  of  his  foes. 

75. — Letter  from  Dashru  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

He  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  the  king's  despatch,  which  he 
thoroughly  understands.  The  rank  which  Dashru  held  in  the 
Egyptian  king's  service,  and  the  situation  of  the  city  or  district  in 
which  he  lived,  cannot  be  ascertained. 

1  In  Babylonian  and  Assyrian,  Ma-ga-du-u  and  Ma-gi-du-u ;  see  Rawlinson, 
Cuneiform  Inscriptions,  Vol.  II,  pi.  53, 11.  56  (K.  276)  and  58  (K.  1521).  The  Semitic  forms 
of  the  name  are :  Heb.  V^p,  Syr.  o*  <J^,  LXX.  Ma-/ecca',  and  the  Egyptian  is 

|i  (1     I     Mdkethd,  or   j|vi        *  fl  ^K  c^vi  Muke^au. 

•  An  embassy  of  this  officer  to  Irkata,  a  city  near  Suniuru,  is  mentioned  in 

No.  42  (see  above,  p.  Ixxii;. 

1-2 


1XXX1V  TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

76- — Letter  from  Zidri'ara  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

He,  who  is  but "  dust  and  mud,"  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  the 
king's  despatch,  which  he  has  understood,  and  has  carried  out  its 
orders  with  all  diligence. 

77. — Letter  from  Shatiwi,  the  governor  of  a  city,  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

He  is  diligently  guarding  the  city  and  district  of  Inishasi ....  (?). 
He  has  sent  his  daughter  to  the  king  to  become  a  member  of  his 
household.  Some  half-dozen  lines  in  the  middle  of  the  text  are 
defaced. 

78. — Letter  from  an  officer  of  the  city  of  Gubbu,1  to  the 
King  of  Egypt. 

In  obedience  to  orders,  he  and  the  forces  under  his  command 
have  set  out  to  join  the  king's  army  and  to  march  with  it  wherever 
it  may  go. 

79. — Letter,  or  appeal,  from  an  unknown  person,  addressed 
probably  to  some  high  official. 

The  writer  demands  that  the  accusation  brought  against  him 
may  be  referred  for  judgment  to  the  King  of  Egypt ;  if  the  king 
will  duly  enquire  into  the  matter  he  is  certain  to  give  him  a  just  and 
favourable  judgment ;  he  will  accept  as  final  the  decision  of  no  other 
person. 

The  two  ines  of  writing  which  run  along  the  left-hand  edge 
appear  to  be  part  of  a  document  which  had  previously  occupied  the 
tablet  and  had  been  erased  to  make  room  for  this  letter. 

80. — Letter  from  an  officer  to  the  King  of  Egypt. 

After  the  usual  salutations,  he  complains  that,  in  consequence  of 
the  withdrawal  (?)  of  the  Egyptian  troops  from  the  cities  round 
about,  the  whole  country  has  become  disaffected.  If  the  king  has 

1  The  position  of  Gubbu  is  unknown ;  the  name  may  be  a  mistake  for  Gitblu, 
i.e.,  Byblos. 


SUMMARY   OF    CONTENTS.  IxXXV 

any  doubt  about  this,  let  him  ask  his  cominander-in-chief  concerning 
the  things  which  have  happened  in  his  land,  and  whether  the 
Egyptian  troops  have  not  forsaken  him. 

81. — Letter  from  an  officer  (whose  name  is  lost)  to  the  King  of 
Egypt. 

He  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  certain  instructions,  and 
announces  the  despatch  of  certain  objects  required  by  the  king. 

82. — Mythological  text  relating  to  the  goddess  Irishkigal,  who  is 
known  only  from  the  Tell  el-Amarna  tablets,  her  messenger  Namtaru, 
and  a  number  of  gods. 

The  style  of  the  fragment  upon  which  this  text  is  inscribed  proves 
that  the  tablet  when  complete  differed  in  shape  from  those  usually 
employed  for  letters  and  despatches.  Both  Obverse  and  Reverse  were 
carefully  ruled  ;  and  the  lines  of  writing  depend  from  the  ruled  lines. 
Before  the  tablet  was  baked,  small  holes  were  pierced  here  and  there, 
on  both  sides,  probably  to  provide  outlets  for  steam  and  to  prevent 
cracking  or  blistering.  At  intervals  of  a  few  words,  red  dots  were 
added,  possibly  in  Egypt,  and  apparently  to  mark  punctuation ; 
though  they  sometimes  occur  in  the  middle  of  words.1  The  close 
similarity  of  this  tablet,  written  about  B.C.  1500,  to  those  of 
Assurbanipal's  library  at  Nineveh,  in  regard  to  form,  ruling, 
puncturing,  etc.,  proves  that  Assurbanipal,  about  B.C.  650,  adopted 
the  traditional  form  of  tablets  in  making  copies  of  the  old  hymns, 
litanies  and  prayers. 

The  text  forms  one  of  the  two  or  three  mythological  compositions 
which  were  found  at  Tell  el-Amarna,  and  which  now  unfortunately 
exist  only  in  a  fragmentary  state.  There  are  preserved  in  Berlin  four, 
and  at  Gizeh  two,  mythological  fragments  (B.,  Nos.  234-237,  and  B., 
No.  239),  all  of  which  probably  belong  to  this  text.  If  this  be  not  the 
case,  their  text  forms  part  either  of  a  duplicate  or  of  a  continuation. 

The  custom  of  marking  short  members  or  sentences  with  red  dots  was  common 
in  Egypt.  For  examples  on  papyrus  see  Sallier  ii.,  B.M.  No.  10,1 '^2,  and  Marietta, 
Les  Papyrus  Egyptiens  du  Muse'e  de  Boulaq,  fol.,  Paris,  1871,  tome  I,  pi.  34. 


IxXXVl  TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 

Three  of  these  fragments  (B.,  Nos.  234  and  239  a,  /3)  mention  the 
goddess  Irishkigal,  and  their  text  certainly  refers  to  the  subject- 
matter  of  our  fragment.  As  to  the  other  three  fragments,  if  they  do 
not  form  part  of  the  same  text,  at  least  they  do  not  appear  to  belong 
to  the  mythological  text  B.,  No.  240.1 

The  meaning  of  a  large  portion  of  the  present  text  is  doubtful, 
but  it  would  seem  that  it  opens  with  the  account  of  the  gods 
sending  a  messenger  to  their  sister  Irishkigal,  offering  to  bring  her  to 
the  place  of  their  abode.  In  reply  she  sends  her  messenger  Namtaru, 
the  plague  god,  who  performs  certain  acts  in  presence  of  the 
gods.  The  goddess  herself  also  accepts  the  invitation  to  visit 
them.  The  home  of  the  gods  had  fourteen  gates,  each  one  of  which 
was  guarded  by  a  god.  The  names  of  the  guardians  of  the  first 
two  gates  are  wanting,  but  those  of  the  gods  of  gates  3-13  are 
Mutabrika,2  Abda,  Kabisa,3  Dirid,  Hutu,  Binna,  Sidana,  Mikid, 
Birapari,  Um(?)ma,  Liba.  What  happened  in  the  abode  of  the 
gods  is,  owing  to  the  mutilation  of  the  text,  unknown,  but  it 
appears  that  a  quarrel  arose  between  Irishkigal  and  her  husband 
Nergal,  in  the  course  of  which  he  treats  her  with  such  violence  that 
she  is  forced  to  beg  for  her  life.  Nergal  drops  his  hand  and  weeps. 
Irishkigal  appeals  to  him  :  "Thou  art  my  husband;  I  am  thy  wife. 
Take  unto  thyself  the  sovereignty  of  the  whole  wide  world,  and 
stablish  all  good  things  of  wisdom  by  thy  hands  ;  then  shalt.  thou  be 
lord,  and  I  shall  be  mistress."  Nergal  listened  to  all  that  the  goddess 
had  said,  and  kissed  her  while  her  tears  were  flowing ;  and  whatso- 
ever she  wished  to  have  done  was  done  from  that  time  forth  for 
evermore. 

1  This  interesting,  but  very  mutilated  text  appears  to  record  the  incident  of  tho 
breaking  of  the  "wings  of   the   South  wind  "  (B.,  No.  240,  obv.  1.  6)   by  Adapa 
y  y?  £?H  >r-»  ^e  ^oa  °^  ^a  ^'  H)>  an^  the  enquiry  which  Anu,  the  sky-god,  made  to 
find  out  why  the  South  wind  ceased  to  blow  for  seven  days  (1.  6). 

2  "  Lightning  "(?). 

3  See  Rawlinson,  Cuneiform  Inscriptions,  Vol.  IV,  pi.  15*,  lines  28,  485;  pi.  16, 
No.  1,  1.  16;  pi.  21,  No.  1  (B),  1.  13 ;  pi.  29,  No.  1,  rev.  1.  26;  K.  5005,  1.  6;  K.  5078, 
Col.  Ill,  1.  3;  K.  5269,  Col.  I,  1.  8;  K.  5312,  Col.  II,  1.  8  (Catalogue,  pp.  682,  687.  703. 
706),  etc. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY. 


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An  Erratum:  ibidem,  No.  6,  p.  144. 

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TELL   EL-AMARXA   TABLETS.' 

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A  Hiltite  prime**  Utter:  ibidem,  1890,  pp.  115-121.     Cf.  ibidem,  1891, 

P.186L 

Jfomamatial  notice  of  Htbreie  Victoria:  ibidem,  pp.  326-329. 

The  Klabiri  or  Abiri:  ibidem,  1891,  p.  72. 

Altaic  Utter  from  Tdl  Amarma:  ibidem,  pp.  245-250. 

He  Hebron  on  tke  TeU  Amarma  Tablet* :  ibidem,  p.  251. 

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Let  ijucriftiomt  de    TeU  el-Amarma:    ibidem,    VoL    XXVI,    1889, 

pp.  79-98. 

Troi*  lettre*  de  TeU  el-Amarma.:    Proceedings  of  the  Soddj  of 


Biblical  Archaeology .  VoL  Xm,  1891,  pp.  127-132. 

^larw  (10  lettra  <ie  TelM-Amarma):  ibidem,  pp.  219-234, 

Q»elq*e*  UOre*  de  TeU  el-Amarmm:  ibidem,  pp.  317-327. 

Z*ttr«  <fe  Tefl el-Amarma:  ibidem, pp.  539-561. 


of  mm.  Axtyriam  library  3£OO  year*  old.  Prof.  Sayce9*  detcriptiam  of  &: 
The  Calcutta  Eeriew,  VoL  T.YTOT,  OdL,  1889,  pp.  XT-XT!  Cf.  The 
OneMafet,  VoL  IV.  1890,  pp.  26-27. 

A,.  Jter  TUmUfdfwmdw*  Tdl- Amarma:  SiUaagaierichte  der  Kowgidi 

der  WkMMchafteB  z»  Berfin,  XXm,  1888,  pjjb 


*«*  -"*-  -*      -~f*  flOtr^  tl«.  A^MA^li^n.  Wa^ltfJtf^^i^A 

w  F  OGDCDBCBnEK  I  •»  JKJBflRBBDBC     fA^BOBOCKM 

,  1888,  eoD.  729-731. 

;•-  ..   --.' 


Wodbeasdmfit,  Jahrg:  VOL  188% 
A.]  nd  WJJOECKUX  H.T.    £^c  mmfH*cbfr  filmvfmnttn     V 


t  £7  Amarmm:  Zeitadvift  fir 
gpncae,1890Tp.ll2.    <y.  >Wb^  1^1,  p.  (C4. 

:  &&*,  1891,  pp.  U7-12& 


T.  A_  TV  Trig  ^AawanM  Rite.-  The  Art.  •••••,  1899,  Sou  3237,  p.  C41 

eSp 


BIBLIOGRAPHY.  Ixxxix 

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HALEVY,  Jos.,  La  correspondance  d1  Amenophis  IV  et  la  Bible:  Revue  des  etudes 
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-  La  correspondance  d'Ame'nopkis  III  et  d'Ame'nophis  7F,  transcribe  et 
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Ho  WORTH,  H.  H.,  Tunip  and  the  land  of  Xaharina:  The  Academy,  Vol.  39,  1891, 
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[JASTKOW,  M.  jr.],  Cuneiform  tablets  in  Egypt:  Harper's  Weekly,  Vol.  XXXII,  1888, 
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—  The  cuneiform  tablets  of  Tell  el-  A  mama:  The  Nation  (New  York), 
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7/t 


XC  TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

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The  name  of  Moses  in  the  cuneiform  tablets  of  Tel  el-Amarna:  ibidem 


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BIBLIOGRAPHY.  XC1 

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The  cuneiform  inscriptions  of  Tel  el-Amama:   Transactions  of  the 


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The  Amorites  and  Hebrews  in  early  cuneiform  inscriptions:    ibidem, 


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p.  166. 
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m  2 


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•  Die  dltesten  Schriftst ilcke  aus  Jerusalem :  Kolnische  Zeitung,  Oct.  1st, 

1890. 


Das    Verhdltnis  des  assyrischen   Permansivs   zum   semitischen   Perfect 

und  zum   dgyptischen   "  Pseudoparticip "    untersucht    unter    Benutzung   der 
El- Amarna- Texte :  Zeitschrift  fiir  Assyriologie,  Vol.  V,  1890,  pp.  1-22. 

Brief e  aus  dem  Funde  in  El  Amarna  in  Transscription  und   Uber- 


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Kanaandische  Glossen :   ibidem,  Vol.  VI,  1891,  pp.  154-158. 

—  Die  Keilschriftbriefe  aus  Jerusalem :   ibidem,  pp.  245-263. 

Palilstina  um  das  Jahr  1400  v.  Chr.  nach  neuen  Quellen :   Zeitschrift 


des  Deutschen  Palastina-Vereins,  Vol.  XIII,  1891,  pp.  133-147. 


LIST    OF    TABLETS. 


I.    LETTER  FROM  EGYPT. 

Nos. 

Letter  from  Amenophis  III.,  King  of  Egypt,  to  Kallimma-Sin,  King 

of  Karaduniyash          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  1 

II.  LETTERS  FROM  BABYLONIA. 

Letters  from  Biirraburiyash,  King  of  Karaduniyash,  to  Amenophis  IV., 

King  of  Egypt 2-4 

III.  LETTERS  FROM  ALASHTYA. 

Letters  from  the  King  of  Alashiya  to  the  King  of  Egypt        . .          . .        5-7 

IV.    LETTERS  FROM  MITAXI. 

Letters  from  Tushratta,  King  of  Mitani,  to  Amenophis  III.,  King  of 

Egypt 8-10 

Letter  from  Tushratta,  King  of  Mitani,  to  a  wife  of  Amenophis  III., 

King  of  Egypt. .  11 

V.    LETTERS  FROM  PHOENICIA  AND  SYRIA. 

Letters  from  Rib-Adda,  governor  of  Byblos  . .  . .  . .  . .  12-25 

Letters  from  Ammunira,  governor  of  Beymt  . .  . .  . .  , .  26—27 

Letters  from  Abi-Milki,  governor  of  Tyre  . .  . .  . .  . .  28-31 

Letter  from  Zitadna,  governor  of  Accho  . .  . .  . .  . .  32 

Letter  from  Abd-Ashirta    . .          . .           . .  . .  . .  . .  . .  33 

Letter  from  Abdi-Ashtati  . .          . .          . .  . .  . .  . ,  , .  34 

Letter  from  Azira    . .          . .          . .          . .  . .  . .  ". .  . .  35 

Letters  from  Akizzi,  governor  of  Katna  . .  . .  . .  . .  . .  36-37 

Letters  from  Shubaudi       . .          . .          . .  . .  ,  38-40 


XC1V  TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 

Nos. 

Letter  from  the  inhabitants  of  the  city  of  Tunip  . .          . .          . .         41 

Letter  from  the  inhabitants  of  the  city  of  Irkata           . .          .  .          . .  42 

Other  letters 43-46 

VI.    LETTERS  FROM  PALESTINE. 

Letters  from  the  governor  of  the  city  of  Khasur           . .          . .         . .  47-48 

Letters  from  Yapakhi,  governor  of  Gezer           . .          . .          . .          . .  49-51 

Letters  from  Widya,  governor  of  Askelon          . .          . .          . .          . .  52-54 

Letters  from  Pu-Adda,  governor  of  Urza           . ,          . .          . .          . .  55-56 

Letter  from  Yabitiri           . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  57 

Letter  from  Akiya  . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  58 

Letter  from  Wyashdata     . .          . .          . .          . .         . .          . .          . .  59 

Letter  from  Bayawi            . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  60 

Letter  from  Labawi            . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  61 

Letters  from  Milkili 62-63 

Letter  frqm  Mut-Adda        . .          . .          . .         . .          . .          . .          . .  64 

Letter  from  Shibti-Adda    . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  65 

Letter  from  Shum-Adda     . .          . .          . .          . .         . .          . .          . .  66 

Letters  from  Shu'ardata    . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  67-69 

Letter  from  Tagi ,  70 

Other  letters 71-73 

VII.    LETTERS  FROM  UNKNOWN  DISTRICTS. 

Letter  from  Dagan-takala  . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  74 

Letter  from  Dashru             . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  75 

Letter  from  Zidri'ara           . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  76 

Letter  from  Shatiwi            . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  77 

Letter  from  an  officer  of  the  city  of  Gubbu  (?)  . .          . .          . .          . .  78 

Other  letters 79-81 

VIII.    MYTHOLOGICAL  TEXT. 

Part  of  a  mythological  legend  relating  to   Nergal,   Irishkigal   and 

Namtar. .  82 


TEXTS. 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


CO        « 

-*        > 

BQ 

CO       O 

T—  1 

O 

r—  < 

OO 
00 


* 


H-l  Ml 


*?  /\        il 

i  ft    I1  5^ 


ESA  + 


in 


in 

I-< 


LETTER   FROM   AMENOPHIS   III 


-&>'-W> 


* 


o 

.9 


i 


A 

— ' 
"= 


<(_ 
7 


~ 


*       r 
*•      « 


B  2 


TELL   EL-AMATINA   TABLETS 


X — S 

e»~ 
*"" 

ff 


CO 

^ 

•s 

CO 
i-H 

o 


O 

IO  * 


I 


>->-  •<„ 


AU 


CO 


iStil  5 
'^il  tr  Pi  11 


¥-^ 

;  *m  M 


TU 

IT 


AA 
AA 
- 


Q 


a 


AA  ^_  Sf  rrf 

AA      y       A*     >^    v^    nl 

^  r  ^^  AA  ^ 
ffl^v^ 


>_ 

AA 


t 

A 


^  ^  u  •' 

"U  AAA    W  ; 

T  tt  £_ 

*~-  V   *l  '" 


W'ftf 
te^   AAA 


¥ 


ii  I 
til 


•; 

pir 

vXOv. 


A 


B'»S* 
-1.  TllS 

</,   t:t:  A 


w iUA  ..  T 

u  >L  i±:  6i    T    : 

*T~  N^   AAI  ^*     /\     ' 

•<i  AAA  V    A 


A, 

IA 


IT 


I 


m^JJ  j  J 

6  Jj} "  s  'f' 

AA       X     *2-    AA      {I    AAI 
£  4  K  AAI    ^  ^ 

W 


*s— — 

AA 
AA 
<^ 


^. 

AAA      A 


IM 


i 


A  A  5V  "  r'1 
>f  ^        ^  \ 

TSB 


Ivl 

V 


O 
IO 


^— I         ^  ^  *^-^ 

M  S  5  $r 


-  ^    AA  AJ_ 

-  »^  *-7  ^      *^  *      J-' 
^    ^1    W  'S  AAl    /i  ftt  ' 

Pi  Pi  AA  PAJ  ^  <f  y  H 


U5 
IO 


0 

CO 


10 

CO 


( 


LETTER   FROM   AMENOPHIS    III. 


IT) 
C- 


8 

5*3*  00 

*<&2M  * 
;u    \7^S  IT 


10 

00 


o 

Oi 


IO 


i      A  A 

Hr  ^ 


AA 


^5=  *rl  K         AA 

"     v     ii     AA  -'^   ^V    >      A      'TT    Ai,      A  »Ai    >      O 

'vf^         >'  ^      sfr-t^fr-frrSt^^YY 

±   *   *     -L->>^<  vTr^       V1V  *"»  **        *     AA 

*     vl  I*3&5*  AA       i        J      ^>-    ^*4  A      ^^ 


* 
Jl 


Ail 


U 


% 

> 


1 1  **i     u    jyse  **    >f-k  » — 

II  T   ^ 

I      1       I  -^    ^x  ^^^  > 

AA  1  111  •/- vX.^  ^V 


A 


* 


AAA 


All 


^ 


71  \  A 
i^I  *** 

*  * 


^i  i  ^  P  iij 

^p 

ill 


A 


A  4.  ^  « 
Ail  T  ^  ^ 


PA  A 


UU 


i* 


jui         i^T  AA!  iiJ[ 

AAA    ^    A   A 


S 

>->- 

AT  > 


Ai 


iii 


Ail   * 


* 


I*  f  i  ¥   ^  "  f  i 


VA 


411  I       ^  "V>     *~ 

A  A**   ^  -Jv    a 
IAI         "^ 

y.   >l_  AA*  Ji    yj  lul  K 

<f  T     A  A*    <f  ^  tt 


O 
00 


m 

00 


o 
o 


AA 


m 

05 


IT 


M 


I 

"A 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  2. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  81;    4fin.  by  2f  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


HT 


^^  H«  ^r^  v  ^r^  5 


f  n  g<  < 


f  T-  -TT< 

F-  Jif  ji 

^,4  HF-  ^ 
<HSf  J^>  H 


?  S<  <- 


10 


>IT 


T! 


X  *W  ^ 


F-  fi  fl 


y  y?  H 


?  ^ 


T?  y? 


-cy 


?  y? 


V    20 


<TIT 


<yiy  « 


y?  ^- 


y? 


y? 


LETTERS    FROM   BURRABURIYASH. 


No.  2. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  81;   see  plate  24.) 
REVERSE. 


25 


30 


35 


B  <^  n  S<  H 


Hf< 
^T 

¥ 


T? 


30 


-  Ef  <TIT  ^  <M  <- 


H 


35 


0  <«=T*  B 


V7  -r  a  ^r 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  3, 

(BU.  88-10-13,  46;  5% in.  by  2f  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


f<T 


ET; 


-,//>•->/> -//>4v>"4</>-,//> 

y«-**JS 

V£   2$%£g$$.. 


~y?  y?  < 


T-T 


i86 


BT 


ErfT  ^4- 


M  B! 
2T-T  T? 


^  ^  x4  ^y 

:<y  «-  ^^y~ 


<!-  Id!  -TTl 


HI  -yyi 


y?  w  yyy 


y? 


jy 


T? 


y?  <r- 


^  <r-  HI  -y 


^ 


10 


15 


20 


YY 


-otXA^vo 

'>:?«.  i  i  'r-'xi' 


LETTERS    FROM   BURRABURTYASH. 


.    No.  3. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  46;  see  plate  10.) 


REVERSE. 


25 


f  H  ffi  ^ 


^T  ^  <T-  Mf 


^  <T-  HI  -HI  S? 


S  <T-  fcfl  -TTl 


<T-  HI  -TTi  3 


^ '    - -*- 


^^TnLJ&^I 


1   Probably  corrected  from  "J^  • 


TELL   EL-AMABNA   TABLETS. 

No.  4. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  21;  Gin.  by  3f  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


Jpy<i<U 


10 


15 


20 


H?|£:      5 


y«<  if-  IK?) 

s=y  H  T 


10 


H  y?  ^ 


-n<y 


VEn 


25 


4 


20 


25 


•~<^t$$% 

*~^     ^—  I  rVr^rC 


yy? 


30 


30 


appears  to  be  omitted 


LETTERS   FROM   BURRABUB1YASH. 

No.  4. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  21.) 
REVERSE. 


<HSf  v  HT  HT 


11 


^^ /"\ 

Here  an  impression  of  a  scarab,  inscribed  with   ^v    and  the  winged  serpent,  is  visible. 


c  2 


12 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  5. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  37;  5|in.  by  3|  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


1H\£! 


^T  -TT<T 

-jnn\S 
~UT\> 


<T 


tfS*T\B9 


tfr  4- 


tYY 


-r 


VrY  T-*  ^! 


-  4  -4- 


-ITT? 


TJ  <MT<T 


T?  <T-  < 


T  < 


?.    TIT 


TT<T  ^TT 


15 


20 


10 


TIT 


TT<T  ^TT  JT 


IT 


I  ^  T\ 


Hf- 


4 


y\ 


^  T\  <T- 


25 


LETTERS   FROM   THE   KING   OF    ALASHIYA. 


13 


No.  5. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  37  ;  see  plate  8.) 


REVERSE. 


30 


35 


40 


50 


<TIT  ^ 


M  TTT  ^  T\ 


HF-  ^ 


30 


35 


TIT 


-IT 


MJT  -T?  -TT<T 
T-  ^  ff  ^T 


TUf    ^n  <f-  <T- 


45 


^^OfT  T-  *fi  T? 
n^  TIT  IdT  ^- 


Hf-  W< 


IT  ^ 


VJ!  TIT 


Tr^  TIT    TT 


-l<  ^T?*  ,IT  <^ 


50 


55 


14 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  6. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  38;    5|  in.  by  3  in.) 


OBVERSK. 


10 


15 


20 


-y  5 


a  -y 


y? 


<xy  <K  -sr  y? 

y^  Mny  nry<y  3y^y 
4  <y-H  HIT  y? 
y^y  ^  -y  *$  <y 

^^y  <y<y<y  ^  - 
<y-^y  y?  ^ 
r-  Buy  -yy<y  ^y 
y-y  sw$  4  - 


10 


-y  15 


<r-  1^1  -yy<y  -y 

Jy  4*(?)  n  20 


-^y  yy 


yy 


25 


<XY    >~<11    .AMT    T-Y-  >r 
S%j       "    ^'     "*" 

"?iiii<yHiy 


so  |f  5 


4 


gy  v  '-f  rye  25 

<m 

f 
'30 

EDGE. 


LETTERS   FROM    THE   KING   OF   ALAS  HIT  A. 


15 


No.  6. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  38.) 


REVERSE. 


35  Si— 

f^5 

^^Sc 


35 


<MT<T 


40 


m:        __.-;-    ^ 

m  TJ.^  < 


45 


-yy<y  jy 


40 


45 


50 


^  -yy^  50 


1C 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  7. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  48;    4  in.  by  2f  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


rr  Jt 


f$&f£$HIB(  *•££- 

e&S&Z-zfr-lfl       "" 


10 


10 


fiL< 


15 


t=Ef 


r^y  *:»  H 


y? 


y^  HI  -yy<y  ^ 


20 


E?*(?)20 


LETTERS   FROM   TEE   KIXG   OF   ALASHIYA. 


17 


No.  7. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  48.) 
REVERSE. 


25 


25 


Lines  24  ff.  are  cousiderablv  defaced,  and  the  transcript  is  doubtful 


18 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


00 


d 

•  rH 
HOD 


CO 


CO 

1— I 
o 


CO 
00 


PQ 


H 

K 

K 
O 


r     AA  _ 
^M 


11 


st 

AA 


11 
>->- 

If 


4- 


AA 


AA:  4Ai 

ZIA  AAJ 


Ai 


il 

AA 


*      I  fc  " 

<ti>4-5'( 


*i  *  ' 
A(  » 


-^»' 


j-, 

IS 


— 

AAI 


IZJ 


* 


^JiiV 
«  ^   - 

4*1; 

«=<,'. 

AUAJ      ' 

_,Rj 


uu  2ui ;  :• 


IAA 


-^  u  i>i 


10 


LETTERS   FROM   TUSHRATTA. 


19 


10 
M 


o 

CO 


to 

CO 


jfi4p4*Ti 

-     <.  J_      vy  ^  i      *    -•;>$ 

41  2f  ir^f  •*-! 

,crS  a5Fs«.' 


CD 

» 


AA, 


?i^t 


r-*? 


>  a  AAA 


u 


I !    *?" !   t^  AAA  ^L 

>tt-  AAI  »—  ^ 

>£5.  t—    A*A 


AA 


W- 


AAA 


^ 

" 


Ail 


*jr 


V  N^     A 


?ii? 


*% 


CSJ 


o 

CO 


10 
CO 


D   2 


TELL   EL- AM  A  RN  A   TABLETS. 


00 


10 


O 
10 


10 
10 


00 


K 

w 

I 


CO 


I 

CO 
CO 

t> 

PQ 


i 


. 

A** 


u 

AAA 


AA* 


I*  T 


U 


Iff 


A  ^  a 


vv 


y  ^  >/iv 

A 


YI  i  f 


fc- 


T^p:*^ 

T     «    i 

iii  4^1 


Ail 
AAA 

•Q 

i 
v! 


10 


o 

10 


1O 
10 


— 

CO 


LETTERS   FROM   TUSHRATTA. 


21 


1C 
CO 


O 
t- 


lO 


O 

OD 


in 

00 


<,  IM 


A  ^ 

,      I] 

} 


jr       £± 

A     A    r^I^  AAI 
A  A       AA! 


AA!          vx  "v"  T-<T    A 
AU    i    ^  *A~ 


4 


*~*"i  *~  >->-  > —    1          Vv^  t^  AAI 

>*-*     >  W  -fc  N^^X1 


iA|  ^  _  tt^  u 
X,A^^=1T^[ 


II 


AAA    ^      A 


AA  1 


|AA 


"A    AA 
•^    A 


A  j 


Y    -r,  A   5±: 

yy  X  A  4  V 

^       A    >_    i    AAA 


W 


AH 


A 


lO 

CO 


10 


O 
00 


in 
oo 


22 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  9. 

(B.   88-10-13,  79;    4f  in.  by  3jin.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


TW 

TT- 


I 


-T<T 


fir 


Hf- 


10 


<y> 


-TT<T  TIT 

yu  v 


4  <#  T 


fir  15 


1T4 


T? 


T  <T-TT<T  -fir  -  !§T  ^ 


-fir 
-HF- 


<TIT  E^ 


<TiT   T 
<M5f 


/v>~v      >->-  *      >->-v  v      w       /»^w- 

<yiy  £±*  ^u  T?  <~ 
lli^fiT  ^4  -0  TIT 


:fir  Hf- 

TT  T-  I 


I<  Y!    -5  t£ft 
4c    It    >-<   >— IT 

V^^       fi    fcT  YY 

45^      ^A.1     t|  If 

<T-Sf*(?)  irHh  (?) 


20 


TIT 


25 

¥  1T4 

f  "cY^ 


ET?*I  30  EDGE. 


<TIT  ^ 


LETTERS    FROM   TUSHRATTA. 


23 


No.  9. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  79.) 


REVERSE. 


35 


40 


45 


50 


<nr  E± 


<H®f 


T  <TZ<T 


35 


T  ^T  0    TT  ^  V  ^U  I 
H    T   ^    SfT    ^<    <r-T<T 


ET  -Sf  TIT 


-£T  -OF  TIT  40 


TUf  <?t? 


n  r  ^ 
Hh  R  sf 


<H@f  r 


T?  y-  ^r  ^T  T 
^  r  s^  ^  HI  HJ 


^JT  HP 


45 


w 


<Yir  T- 


T? 


50 


5±: 


<TI!  T 


TIT 


T  -Hf-  JT  ^ 
4-TT  H   <HSf 


-n  F 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  10. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  78;    3^  in.  by  2|fin.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


j 


I  4HF-  !Yr 


j!!  ^r  r 


->f  r 


HIT  ^  ^  <r-  -4  ^i   r^ 
^4  v  ^r4  1?  HI  4«f  n 

UU  ^-T<!  TY  ^  >^  I-  n 


10 

m-m  <?sffi 

15 


-TT<T 


Hf- 


n 


<yiy  ^  r-  *w 


HI  ^  ^y  <r-*c?) 


20 

EDGK 


LETTERS   FROM   TUSHRATTA. 


25 


25 


30 


No.  10. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  78  ;   see  plate  23.) 


REVERSE. 


Hf- 


HTT4  £ 


<  £ 
^T  -JL1 


-TT4  Idl 


25 


T-  -I? 


T?  *  yu  * 


~<          ti: 


HF- 


^T  T^ 


-ITT? 


[Here  follow  three  lines  of  hieratic  writing,  much  defaced,  which 
give  the  date  of  the  arrival  of  this  despatch  in  Egypt.] 


30 


26 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  11. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  39;    5jin.  by  3fin.) 
OBVERSE. 


Yv'Vif^X^X-^eVNX:!   K 

I  i^GMf&s&'yf&SSt  O 

•v—s^~Jf*tfa(inffi 


10 


IT 


m&Mi.w 

W  <K  ^T! 


LETTERS    FROM   TUSHRATTA. 


27 


No.  11. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  39;   see  plate  9.) 
REVERSE. 


50 


55 


;fS^y-y<y!y     -^^" 

iJi  KT  4^  -yy<y  ^ 


<MH!J 


mt 


55 


f-TTTY 


-V<"O 

^ 


1  On  the  lower  part  of  the  Reverse  are  two  lines  of  hieratic  writing,  much  defaced,  and  on  the 
left-hand  edge  a  few  hieratic  characters  are  also  visible. 

E   2 


28 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  12. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  72;   Sjjin.  by 


05 
Oi 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


Y   ^5  ^ 


ML 


y  Y 

T 


*-w 


YYY 


05 
Ol 


30 

»" 

—    C*- 

'S    B* 


y  -yy<y 


Hf 


v  ,iT   v  THh 


I  ffif 


ET4  KT 


>-rr<r 

><!<  ^T  <HiT  Hf- 


^  3T  ^^  <I!I 

i  t^ 
^  i^ 

£T  Hh 

-<r<  ^r 


10 


T  *=M 


=TT* 


y 


<xy 


T?^T?3:T?^  20 


src  KSJ  -y 

y>^yy?'<y> 
<r^TEr*s 


y?  (? 


-  * 


<y~yy<f  T 


<xy  <^  <y- 


EDGE. 
30 


1  Written  over  an  erasure. 


LETTERS   FROM   RIB-ADDA. 

No.  12. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  72;    see  plate  20.) 
REVERSE. 


35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


>- 

.-^AJ-^-S 

•v 


:VY 


^  ~M  -I 


K*  <£J  35 


40 


-I- 
«< 


^  <2! 
*H  5<  *<T<  H  Sf-  H  Sf-  ^ 


45 


WV  3  4H  •!» 


<T-TT<T 


T  T?  H  - 


|  50 

-Y£T 


y? 


55 

m  v 

EDGE. 
60 


30 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  13. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  53;  4f  in.  by  Sin.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


Mw      . 
TY!  ^ 

YY    YY    ^ 


YY 

YY  y.Y 


W 


mj 

30  ^ 

01 


HM-tffl  *B-SH! 


F-  t 


<in 


?  3=1? 


<yy 


y? 


yy<y 


y?  -y  2?  y- 
^  <in  ^^y 


10 


<y<  y  y?  H 


<y< 


<<y<y  *  ^  y?  ^y 


20 


:<yy 


y?  -<y<  i 
y?  -y"*  -y 


-y 


y? 


y^y  -y  <^T 


25 


TO    B* 

?   § 

§. 


?)<V  30 
EDGE. 


LETTERS   FROM   RIB-ADDA. 


31 


No.  13. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  53.) 


REVERSE. 


35 


35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


8L<  W  ^  £T  3M  T? 

r?^T  S[S=T  y?  ,§r  ^    &T  ^r  ^T  H 

H  -TH  ^T  H  sr-  T;^T  ^n  <r-       50 

-TH  fflf  T  T?  H  HF-  H  3M  3M  V- 
H^I  ^TH  ^T  ^>3T  HIT  T?  V  R  HE!  <T-  ^T? 
<T-  >^?  -<!<  ^T  n^T  -^  4  ST^T      | 
<  3M  *  *  (?)  £T  *  (?)  < 


HfT<T  -S 


-KT 
-f- 
I 


Hf-   <4HfT   W  HIT 


55 


60 


EDGE 


^-  a*:' 


32 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  14. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  58;    3|in.  by  2f  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


y  HfM*  Hf  -Hf- 
7il(?)  fif  *  (?) 


yy<y 


YVY  t*          WY 

YYY  fcT          VYV 


-Hf- 


yy 


y?  -y-  -y 


y  ^T  y 


y  ^ 


20 


25 


EDGE. 


LETTERS   FROM   RIB-ADDA. 


33 


No.  14. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  58;   see  plate  13.) 

REVERSE. 


30 


ETC?)   <b   J£    &   &  Hf 

T  3:fi  Hf-  S<  <~  <ra 
T  T?  3fcT 


3=n  <r- 
4  n  JT 

F  -I-  -T- 


30 


40    T?£T  y  ^-yt  ^  ^  ^yy^y  gy  ^  y  ^yy<y  y^y  ^j_  ^yy  40 

H4  >^  knl  JT 

s2MaL!<h* 

!Wf  H4  S 
45    ^^  ^T  X^  U  ^T  ^T  Tf     "<!<  S*  ^      45 

^Y        ^_*^Y    ^"^"T  Y    •*-  V^    ^  T>-Y      >•          -rV    ^~^^--    *"  Y       ^^V    Y 

^1  >"    ^  ^l'          ^"l^l          >-W'       £]          >~      —          >~!        >~^  1 

<^  ^T   TY   4-   -T   T?^T  ^Tr  <T> 

50  S-L  ^^y  ^u  »<y<  Hf  s^y  ^  y^         so 
$  4   ^       ir^  H4  Hf-  iM^T 

cc       -    -• "  :vo  VY  >— v<'<x<>-N'oftir  y*>;<'<>v<'O'-;vv>--Y  >• — <  c^  f; 

55  *£=!T  ^^^•^'^^'•T  <1->'£h'£b'&*xiv  wti> 

^-^fv'.-^r  'x.-r-  ••..-.-     -  T 

^FH^S^^T^TT*(^)<I^r(-)    EDGE. 

X^:---VT> 


34 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  15. 

(BU.  88-10-13,   77;    2}  in.  by  2fin.) 


OBVERSE. 


III  Tr 


TY 


10 


TnT  X 


<K'\<     '  'II    - 

15    ^^^ 


01       ^g 

i_i  ?*    SN 


20 


F  y  w  a 

HT  nry<y 


I? 


-r  -s 


Hf-ft 


T? 


ir 


ff  fe  -TT<T 


T? 


15 


IH 


EDGE 


LETTERS    FROM    RIB-ADDA 


35 


No.  15. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  77.) 

REVERSE. 


25 


30 


35 


40 


<r  ;E 


*  8L<  R 
<«  Hf- 


I^T  T 
HF- 


<T-  >w  ^TT     25 


-<!<  m* 


30 


TT<!  -r 


35 


TYr 


TWf  M 


40 
EDGE. 


F  2 


36 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  16. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  73;    3f  in.  by  2f  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


TrT 


10 


15 


20 


O     (8 

' 


n 


<  v 


-  sir  r- 


n 


T<T 


T?  3TT  I-  IlEf 


,11 


15 


<MH 


yr 


20 


LETTEES   FROM   RIB- ADD  A. 


37 


No.  16. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  73;   see  plate  20.) 


REVERSE. 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


-HTT   /Y-  iP^|| 
>-IT    \l      fe/^y^r: 


^Ty 


T  2T-T 


25 


-yy<y 


r? 


3° 


35 


ffif  5^    T^T 


v*  3r  yy 


<y-n<y 


40 


EDGE. 


45 


1  Written  over  an  erasure. 


38 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  17. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  47;  4jin.  by  2f  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


-*j$$j&l&W1 

noNKlKneNNHK  I 

vvv  * 

WWW      ~ 


0    -TI<T   *^    ^P^'^Sl^^ 

>;^-'V 'i.V\>i.V>;>;^<i 


r  ^  r? 


10 


S®» 

r 


r 

>f 


1^/<Z&<?/- 

'-:,£« 

"JKASK^vSviS 

15 


Err^<nr 

=B  -TT<T 


:T! 


^T-  <(?) 


20 


r?  R 


25 


iA 

EDGE. 


25 


1  Or  ^f. 


LETTERS   FROM   RIB-ADDA. 


39 


No.  17. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  47.) 
REVERSE. 


40 


45 


50 


40 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  18. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  40;    4f  in.  by  Sin.) 


OBVERSE. 


^tT4j  2° 


>^y.y?  >^ 

y*3^#G&f&%3t32f*®?32 


LETTERS   FROM   RIB-ADDA. 


41 


No.  18. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  40.) 
REVERSE. 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


<T< 


25 


lBH 
3° 


W    <MT<T 


<T^r  -Ef  fl 
^^T  TJ  4- 
ff  ^-   fif   - 

HF-  ^  ^  r 


* 

srfflf  -^1 
!  fifcC 


35 


40 


4-   - 


HW 

H    |  45 


f5=T  ^T  HKT  M*  ET 


H 


50 


Hh 


50   EDGE. 


After  this  sign  there  follows  an  erasure. 


42 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  19. 

(BU.   88-10-18,  44;    4J-in.  by  2  Jin.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


H7<T  -II  &W  Hf 

r  Hfi<r  BIT  Hf-  4-r 


<r<  ^r 

-TH 

I    ^- 


^TM  r?  ^r 

T?    ^   •/• 

<1H    ^    ^yr 


-rr<r 


10 


H  <m  £r 

<ra 

H  W  <MH  -<T<* 

15 


g<  ^r  ^  T  n 


20 


T?£T 

r    n 


<m 


n  ^ 

-r  r? 
a 


T? 


25  EDGE. 


LETTERS    FROM   RIB-ADDA. 


43 


No.  19. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  44;   see  plate  10.) 

KEVERSE. 


30 


35 


40 


45 


£T   T? 


fM 


T   V-  so 
<«  ^T 

ff  y-  -<T< 

^T  ^ 

-     B^T         -1     35 

T     ^     <T^T 
T?  I?  ^T  T  ff  -H^  -TT<T 


IHf 


T  ^T  T?  <T 
*<T<    ^- 
«KT  ^    ^ 


40 

~-5?&idfH> 

*^/vr^<v?^ 


:TT 


45 


1  Here  the  scribe  began  to  write  saplisunu,  but  erased  it ;    the  traces  of  the  first 
character          Vr       are  visible. 


G   2 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS, 


No.  20. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  68;  3|in.  by  2f  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


1U 

,w«  I 

3K-S 


s 


SI 


10 


r 


-TM  £T- 


<MH 


+• 

Hf-    "> 

T?   ^r  i? 


nj 
<« 


»^/-i 

M  ®  H<-w<>- 

ra  tt>  -'>,\<-'>,\- 


<« 


f        >-<       ^.Y 

^          T 


10 


15 


15 


M   TIT 
HfM 


<T- 


20 


I?         4 


20 


LETTERS    FROM   RIB-ADDA. 


45 


No.  20. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  68.) 


REVERSE. 


25 


30 


35 


40 


>- 1 


I  <MT<T* 

£*A" 

•f  o 


<T~T  fc 


ai 


25 


30 


TTT 

r 

\  T>- 

*  I   j 

T 
T 


H4 
f<T 


f- 


HfT<T 


SI      ET 
T     ^ 

*  T  >^T 


,11 


35 


EDGE 
40 


46 


TELL  EL-AMAKNA    TABLETS. 


No.  21. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  63;  3jin.  by  2^  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


<r< 


10 


10 


^r  T 


15 


^  *3  T  ^ 


•*««» 


fi  * 


£T  au  ^^  20 


LETTERS   FROM   RIB- ADDA. 


47 


No.  21. 

(BU.  88-10-13,   63.) 


REVERSE. 


25 


•>>: 
•N>o 


EH  A  HI 


2& 

^fe 

.•V>ivx 

*%$ 

m 


^T  n 


•--? 


T! 


40 


45 


50 


H  yyy  - 


">-TY 

:-!Y 


-T 


>~m 
^« 


r^ 

^?x- 

';  EDGE. 


48 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  22. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  31;    2±m.   by  2iin.  ;   see  plate  6.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


Tr 


15 


20 


* 


Tfc£T    «* 
Hf-  W  H 

IH  3y^y 


ffif 


h 


K  <xr  <x  ^^T 


10 


<r-  T 


r?  * 


EDGE. 

15  REVERSE. 


^  *  (?) 


20 


Hfft  ^ 


-  - 


^y  <>y 


25    ^^ 


30 


LETTERS    FROM    RIB-AJ>DA. 


49 


No.  23. 

(BU.  88-10-13,   18;    2jin.  by  2jin.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


r  -y 


H?- 
- 


T  <-  <xr  - 


-r<r 
L  i  HP- 


r^r  -T 


15 


20 


25 


30 


EDGE. 


*  (?)  fr  ^T  H  *  (?)  REVERSE. 

20 


jr*  H^  y 


T?  -^ 


-  25 


<m 


Mf 


H 


35 


.-  >   >—  »-_  >-         >—  -^ 

feLirt-. 

"*&&£ 

- 


*""*-     f»T/'0\  OK  T1 
>T>-  AJH  (•  )  OO  LDGK. 


1  "Written  over  an  erasure. 


50 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  24. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  42;    3f  in.  by  2^  in.) 
OBVERSE. 

01 


10 


15 


20 


^  ^  TTYT   t   Yff 

S -         V^    _rf  III 


TY 


TrT 


YYY 


-f 


TnT 


TY! 


Y      T 

TTY!    ' 


- 

YTr 


^      tl'  Y 

*  YY?     TTTT 


xV 


"1 


^v  ^  ^  <j/>;  v^;  / 

-\3    w  IT  <Sw5C 

-    T  ?^;'. 

^  A  >^    Y$i';'' 
TYY  o?  J-i.,,!^^" 

i  P 

f/  sMSMSJ 


01 


ft"  7" 

D 


r  J^ 


rr 


TTTT  ^ 


I 


*2 


y 


<y 


l5 


<y  20 

EDGE 


1  Erased  by  the  scribe 


LETTERS    FROM    RIB- ADDA. 


51 


NO.  24. 


(BU.  88-10-13,  42.) 


REVERSE. 


25 


30 


35 


40 


n 


- 


25 


<y^y  ^ 


WH-* 

30 


y^y  -y-  ^- 


CYY*^* 

•'U^b 


-y- 


-y- 


35 


<tt  40 


H   2 


LETTERS    FROM    RIB- ADD  A. 


53 


No.  25. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  32;  2  j  in.  by  If  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


to 

Oi 


=55    *1 


^  >  >^^" 

TTT        Y  JU 
YT  ^  ^  ^ 

TsSi'Si 

to      Sc 


10 


TT<T 


4-TT 


H 


T- 


TJ 


r  ^  ^^^^ 

REVERSE. 


15 


20 


?m&* 

^  -^^^igsi 


10 


r^ 


^  BL<  w 


15 


Sf 

T- 


EDGE.  20 


1  This  liue,  which  is  written  in  smaller  characters  than  the  other  parts  of  the  text, 
appears  to  have  been  inserted  after  the  scribe  had  finished  the  letter. 


54 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  26. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  80;    3 j  in.  by  2jin.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


TO  3=ff 
4  H(T<T 


:    10 


-TM-^I 

15 


-HF-  4  ^^T?  -Hf- 


H< 


-TT4  ^ 


20 


EDGE. 
25 


1  Corrected,  or  erased,  by  the  scribe. 


LETTERS    FROM    AMMUNIRA. 


55 


No.  26. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  80;    see  plate  23.) 


REVERSE. 


30 


35 


40 


45 


ft  3^      Tr£T 


30 


:fl  Hf- 


HfU  ^T? 


-Hf-  4  3=T?  -HF-  H«  ^y? 


fl 


35 


40 


AT 


yy  <y- 


45 


YT  £:Y  *    YY 

!T^T 


^5T<s 


EDGE. 


56 


TELL    EL-AMAftNA    TABLETS. 


No.  27. 


(BU.  88-10-13,  7  ;  3|  in.  by  2|  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


-yy<Y(?)  H4  yy 


v  <  v 


M?>  y? 


tHF- 

5 

*«-  "EY* 


yy 


?  y? 


10 


<in 


T? 


-  4-yy 


zl/^l^  20 


<y-yy<y 


EDGE. 


LETTERS    FROM    AMMUNJRA. 


57 


No.  27. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  7;  see  plate  2.) 
REVERSE. 


25 


30 


HfH 


,11 


LI* 


.y 


3=!? 


~    i       ' 


25 


30 


LETTERS    FKOM    ABI-MILKI. 


59 


No.  28. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  60;  4f  in.  by  2J  in.) 


00 

o 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


YTp" 


T      -,» 

2, 


TY 


TT 


f?7 


TrrT 


'  >  ,.3NK<'Yl    •! 

^L^-^f  8| 

Y  -^^   :^oomT/.x 


-cY    TY  Z$'       i_i  o^ 


"<  y  TUf  «£ 

f   TIT   H  *J 


f?  IB 


Vr^T   ft    <MT<T 


Y^YYJ 


-rr<r 


T? 


•ITT? 


T?^f  TIT 


15 


R  <T-TT<Tl 


20 


Hf- 

TY    »w 


-IT 


JT 


JT 


Hf< 


TIT 

-< 


25 


30 


OK  ;    :>^Y  Y    Y    T*    ^Tf4^    *^T  Y    QR 
35  ~^-.f:\J.  IT^      ^>-I    <3° 

|g»—   ^M         Jr^|  I  EDGE. 

'^£    "»—   ^_->^    Y   TV   YY    »-< 
f      >^_    *V^TT>    I    YT\    If    >-< 


I  2 


GO 


TELL  EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


00 


•«* 


3 

cS 


co 

i—  i 

i 

o 

T—  1 
1 

CO 

00 

t> 


IT  J=i 


o 

Tj« 


m  i*  m  it  Ti 

o 

LO 


7  4  ^  id  I 


10 

10 


LETTERS   FROM    ABI-MILKJ. 


61 


II 


= 

I 

-= 

& 


be 


.3 


62 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


No.  29. 

(BU.  88-18-13,  51;  3J  in.  by  2iin.) 


05 
Ol 


OBVERSE. 


^f^ral^ 
f  %Fm^     -2 

^ 

2  ^  III   YT  Y 

f    ^^^-   Y 

^3YTy      ? 
r   -~       =3  ^  Bl 

***T?     3Tf! 
TTJL'     _fi     ^ 

i  -^Hi 

***!>    ^ 

ntT  ,  **      _ 

H*3.wi  Y  In 

^,    ft^^ 

r    ^ff     i» 

E^ 


jfl' 


wm~' T  ^-^ 

sttM 


TYY  ^ 

S4 


*4.fl 

J4 


XV  J, 

YY   =3 
YY 


TT 


YYY 

9 


YYY 


-^ 

O 


Sf^  g 

05  r 
01  5 


P-  y> 


nr 


10 


T- 


n<y 


*<  y< 


15 


-y 


TTi  <T 


20 


yy<y 


T? 


*T 


^y?  y 


Y 


1  Written  over  an  erasure. 


LETTERS   FROM   ABI-MILKI. 

No.  29. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  51;  see  plate  11.) 


G3 


REVERSE. 


TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  30. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  56  ;  4lin.  by  2jin.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


!> 


TY 


I!    ** 

|>^TJJ 

Tn  "*"* 


Y      Y 


**' 

=sV  A. 


<J 
3 


r  i 


30 


IU 


^  < 


-HP- 


HP 

f  T? 


TIT  IrUT  ffi    3TT 


HF- 


S     --TT 


TYr 


TH 


-Ef  TI 


10 


<T<  T 


TT<T 


2TT 


.4  W  -TT<T  -^T 


TTl 


15 


20 


-T? 


TT<T 


UL  ^  T^ 


LETTERS    FROM    ABI-MILKI. 


65 


No.  30. 

(BIT.  88-10-13,  56  ;  see  plate  13.) 
REVERSE. 


35 


40 


45 


Y»-YYY  5^  gg 

i"*S 

*-**£ 

^ys* 
^r_  x% 

A I  fc_.x< 


AI 
^-< 


40 


Y     £Tj^       40 

>^  I  i^V  JjV-5 


(?)  HF-  - 

T?  m.  <r- 
T?  <r-  ^ 


m. 


HI 


50 


55 


60 


65 


-  T-   HIT 


4IT 


T  - 


T  - 


60 


EDGE. 
65 


C6 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


05 
O 


No.  31. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  26;  4  in.  by  2^  in.) 
OBVEHSE. 


YT 


II 


YY 


10 


15 


Hy 
* 


YY 


YT 


ft? 
N 

TT 


TY 


20 


VYV        /      YYV 

v  <  v 


nr 


JPU  s  ru  >^r 


10 


<xr  I 

r  >±n 
<xr 


20 


I?  -<T<| 

r  ><  r< 


25 


-S&SSRHK  ^Y< 

,%&&• 

&f«< 


||B  EDGE. 


LETTERS    FROM   ABI-MILKI. 


67 


No.  31. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  26.) 
REVERSE. 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


if*  so 


>BTT    S    HfT<T 


2TT  1 


it 


*  "  35 


*  T*  ^*  ^'4-*  T?7l<  40 


f)  \    >— V  /OX^Xr^ 

(?)  EI(?)H1 


M      VX>N  *  "^  *  **  w  *^ ;-.  *v  \  C- ^?xV\^'\>"^ 

'<     "=^-(^jj^M 

rttTsmwM  | « 

^_^  •>§&•< 

f!  /Y.-TST  J:t  S7$  ITl^-;/^ 


<HSf 


<K<T  ^ 


50 


S      HIM 

T?(?)nrT<(?)^ 


»(?)^4^T._N 

4       ^  4UTi      ^  55 
•y-A 


K  2 


TELL    EL-AMARXA    TABLETS 


No.  32. 


(BU.  88-10-13,  20  ;  2^  in.  by  2jin. ;  see  plate  6.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


IN     'HI    3=ff   -HP 


-Hf- 


<HSf 


10 


(REVERSE  BLANK.) 


LETTER    FROM    ABD-ASHIRTA. 


69 


No.  33. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  49  ;  3f  in.  by  2f  in.  ;  see  plate  11.) 

OBVERSE. 


10 


T     -^     ~TT<T     -rJ 


ME  HL< 


T«<  ^   HfM  Til 


«f    *| 


<T 


Til 


REVEBSE. 


15 


20 


r? 


-TT<T 


<T-     ^.Tll 


-Yl 


15 


<T   TH  ^T 


20 


LETTER   FROM   ABDI-ASHTATI. 


71 


No.  34. 

(BU.  88-10-13,   62;    3*  in.  by  24  in. ;  see  plate  15.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


a  I 


HT<T  V; 


te  r 


10 


REVERS 


15 


15 


'This  line  is  much  defaced,  and  the  readings  of  many  of  the  character,  are 


doubtful. 


TELL    EL-AMAltNA    TABLETS. 


No.  35. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  76;  5iin.  by  Sjin.) 


01 

Oi 


OHVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


I  ^*fc 

A      Y      TT 

fe 


25 


fY     -ti    _-i^»      *pf        >-<     YYY     >->-»y         Y      t*-»y         v 

IY-A]  «-^^>  £\>-  ^  »t4^  j^y^  >->f-  ^.jf  «->f- 

^'rTTy      Y    Y^      ^YY-^X     ^.Y^Y     -vV      ^•vf     *^r>-Y>-Y 

-jl>±l     i    ir      n^    nil    *w^    >:V!    ^IHPI 

™  ^    <y-&  ^  ^T  y?  -^ 


EH  HF-  E 


<X 


rtr  ^ 


tm  -  «=  E 


15 


y?  T? 
<r-ffy  ^^=y^y  m* 


4  y  H 


<xy  20 


<xy 


ET-T 


y? 


25  EDGE. 


LETTER   FROM   AZIRU. 


73 


No.  35. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  76  ;  see  plate  22.) 


REVERSE. 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


^  -£T  -£  TUf 


-TT4 


-4  ^ 

K  s3f= 


Hfll 


£*  H    -IT    EMf  -£TT  -SIT  >£:  Id!!  -  ;£ 


30 


4^  35 


<H!  -T 


nf  gr*  S  <xr  ^4 
-IT  ^m*  ^  -4  5:  <r 


-4 


^  r  w<  -E  tin 


40 


4 


T  ?*<  -ji  BIT 


4  ^ 
<H&  - 


45 


HI 


El 


<  -4 


-TfT  £T?  -IT 

V  -Ul  £tt  <T- 


AJ       t^i>       T"^      TT^       TT      ^~~      "»2- 


EDGE. 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


No.  36. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  55;   4  J  in.  by 


^  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


f- 


> 


TC  &T  s^T  Sf 


r  rc 


3T-T 


ETT? 


a- 4 a 


-k-v 

A. 


10 


<H& 


H  F~  a 

!>*•>*•    t 


ST-I 


15 


JkA 

fty« 


YYY 


<y-a^ 


>=HH 


;y  ^4^->^ -4-^^-n ^F^y*<i-©M(?) 0*F^rl 
KW    ^r^y^y^  <y^^yikg^^ 
"~     T  TT  -yy^  EH  ^i  -Hf*1  ^y1  ^ 

_  ..  .  -       .  .  _  .       "  V^v< 


25 


.we          ^JP^1 

?ss^^^ 


1  Written  over  an  erasure. 


LETTERS    FROM    AKIZZI. 


75 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


No.  36. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  55.) 
REVERSE. 


*    ^*  -Jf-*_4r*^c 

•^   3^t*$&>  •:$& 

—  »c\»  ^fj*-—/>f/^-—S'/*^jl/f^-^/s^jtfF-^fj^~--j>'F-—s''-^--~s''-    ~~s  '''--'•',  _->"yV    M 

(?)^";?A6§;x^;^-s-^:r^/-  T 

2&2^2»^f»^; 


40 

^T 


>ff- 


:'J 


,.r^_    .. 
-., , 

T- 


M   -      '- 


h 


<r-£r 

^M 
4  -HF-  T? 
SfT  ^T  - 
^ai 
<T-Sf  ^ 


so 


55 


ar  fc 


HF- 


HF-  1? 


60 


i  Erased  by  the  scribe,  who  probably  intended  to  write  TTY  ^"EY  here. 


2 


76 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


Od 


D> 

CO 


CO 
J— I 

o 


CO 
CO 


LETTERS    FROM    AKIZZI. 


77 


o 

CS1 


AA, 


v    > 

I- 

.-     -"      -        -      ' 


Hi 


^ 


«i  i 

siji 


<^^J}  ^:^v^: 

^£XLi 


y§&?ag*:»r        >>7-i 

•  -'..-•   ..     -     •»-      ;     ..-'  .-•  ,••- 
Mt^tt^WzW 

-    -    -          .          -'VV/         -,    •      • 


-.:  ;.   -      -;  :-,;-,     ,       -,    .—-   -r     ./-     .;>     .>     ..  . 
-  :          ,..,.,:-       :>.'-..--  .;•.-:- 


-   ^ 

J*S$I 


o 

d 


.     - 

*§k?s*s?* 

$£$£$ 
**$?wt 

^M^? 

•>^>%>'. 

PHI 
•^^ 
^^ 
SK 

at 

*"« 

ii 


10 
CSJ 


AA*  n^  w 

>. >n          ii     iUl    lUi    iUl    i"i     YA 

t±  ii  Jll 

ifc  *  ^  ^  «-  ^  J 
J  v  T  r  r  S 

«fl|  14^5?^^ 

IJ-   *  *    tr:  tr  *—  t 

^T  -pi^     ^n  nr  J7!  J] 


I  ^ 


ni 


o 

CO 


E: 

AA    ^ 


MTT 

-1f|u 

i.5i^ 


i|S^: 

T   ^  5^  ^ 


*? 

iii 


U5 
CO 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  37. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  41.) 
REVERSE. 


T-  ^y?    y]U  nr  T 


ft  <MT<T 
T-£J  HF- 


40 


mm*& 


Tllt*,Sl 

50 


55 


V>**8f«~c-*S- 

2NB?^*i,ir*- 

:~y?     | 
fTK:Ts*=<I!!<5=sr 


T 


70 


LETTERS   FROM   SHUBANDI. 


79 


No.  38. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  6  ;  3f  in.  by  2j  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


Tr   HF-   T«< 


T    &    3    HF- 


IT 


•HI 


TYT  -HP 


HF- 


?! 


15 

EDGE 


REVEKSE. 


20 


:T*      £1 


20 


10 


80 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  39. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  52;  3f  in.  by  2f  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


y 


?  HF- 


*    Hf- 

JT    ^T    -Hf- 


y? 


y-  y? 


10 


15 


EDGE. 


LETTERS   FROM   SHUBAXDI. 


81 


No.  39. 

(BIT.  88-10-13,  52 ;  see  plate  12.) 
REVERSE. 


20 


•HI 


20 


82 


TELL   EL-AMAKNA   TABLETS. 


No.  40. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  3;  4  in.  by  2|  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


T 


4- 


^*  rr 
TT  «^  H< 


^      ! 


10 


mr 


£     *     H 


W 


15 


20  EDGE. 


LETTERS   FROM    SHUBANDI. 


83 


No.  40. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  3.) 


REVERSE. 


25 


30 


35 


T?* 


-Hf- 


25 


^T    <MT  ^     so 


INK   SE 


~--j~  :,-'/-:•  -'.":—:••-.'- '-'.^' •--.-•-.-    >v   .;' 
± •-i..^--;--  -,, --;:.,. :,,:,-  :-.:-.>.    -  :=   ^,:,.- 


35 


M  2 


84 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  41. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  71  ;  4  in.  by  Sjin.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


HYT  \ 


10 


<in 


*  - 


-yy<y 


<Hfwwr~-e    2° 


-Hh>4  y  y?  - 


t  CT  ^i!  eg  ju  a 


*    BY*   25   EDGK. 


LETTER   FROM   THE    INHABITANTS    OF    THE   CITY   OF   TUNIP.         85 


No.  41. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  71.) 


REVERSE. 


30 


35 


40 


45 


>HPF- 


ff  -ET 


^  so 


T  n 


<HT  ^  -^  ET  <-  T  I?  - 
<HT  E^  ^T  *-  ^ 


-in  ^  ^  ^  <HT  - 


35 


jy 


40 


<y-Ey  n  4-  -^y  ^y4 

y  -m  y^4  ^  4-TTT 


45 


86 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  42. 

(BU.  88-10-13,   13;  3|  in.  by  2J  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


r  w  <in 


10 


ttif 


R  <in  <^* 


TH 


:rr 


£ 


iir 

*&$&*-- 


EDGE. 


LETTER    FROM   THE    INHABITANTS   OF    THE   CITY    OF    IRK  ATA.        87 


No,  42. 

(BU.   88-10-13,   13;  see  plate  4.) 
REVERSE. 


25 


30 


35 


40 


^T  <ra 


-y 


yy<y 


; 

•?  ^  ^  V 


25 


<«  < 


<y<  <« 

^  ^y 
<m 


<y<  3^  sy  iffy 


-yy<y 


4 


H^y  -yy<y 


y  3=1; 


X 


T*    IT-     H     IT- 


40 

EDGE. 


88 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  43. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  11  ;  3f  in.  by  3  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


T 


I 


YY 

3 


Mf 

^1  TUT  Kff 
y  y 


ff  <  r^  £y 


Jl  ~ 


10 


-•  4ft 


TUf 


<<  r 

<3 


KT 


y-  15 


y 


20 


Mf 


fiy  ^i 


1^20 


Hf- 


-'/>'-n 

i  EDGK 


'   Probably  corrected  from   ^glf.  *  Corrected  from    ^y^ 

*  Written  over  anotlier  sign. 


LETTERS    FROM    PHOENICIA   AND    SYRIA. 


89 


No.  43. 

(BU.   88-10-13,   11;  see  plate  3.) 
REVERSE. 


25 


30 


35 


^*m 


^  <x 


TUy  y^y  <y-ffi  4-  -IT  HMTS  T  <r— TT<T  w  4-1 4- x  A 
y{.4  ^yy  -yy^  ^y  w    <y-S  4-  ^=in  -y 


30 


-y<y  ^ 
y  <y-n<y 


y  u  <  -4-  *• 
^y  y  3  -yy<y  ST<T 


^T  y?  y> 


35 


<r-  ^r 


40 


iii&3££ 


^  -4  w  <m  ^yy  y^y  y- 

<y-S  ©^  «y  ^ycy  1  < 


40 


i^*  T^<  ^  y?  ;3<rf 

^^^83g^)^3@8S^g«^K@B^^E 


1  Written  over  another  sign. 


N 


90 


TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  44. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  17;  S^in.  by2fin.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


^T  ff 


T  BL<  ^T-  ^ 
<I> 


n 


isa 


M 


-IT- 


10 


<MM 


*•  r  s< 


EDGE. 


LETTERS   FROM    PHlEXICIA    AND    SYRIA. 


91 


No.  44. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  17.) 


KEVERSE. 


25 


30 


35 


T  ^  T 


y  ^T  ff 


-Er  sr-T 

_i>^V^    / 

wr  m 


,iy  *  (?)  3° 


y?  ^  -yy<y  <T-IT  ff  ^  y 


-fer  ^y 


1   ^[*-  appears  to  be  omitted. 


35 


N   2 


92 


TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  45. 

(BU.   88-10-13,   12;    3|  in.   by  2$  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


«-7I    tHfidl 
4^  »I>Lt» 

y  ^  y;j$&*< 


r? 


r  «  ^r 


T-  ^r  (?)  -rr<r  ^r  *  (?)  10 


<irr 


15 


15 


20 


lg<m^ 
'%frr< 


20 


EDGE. 


LETTERS    FROM    PHOENICIA    AND    SYRIA. 


93 


No.  45. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  12  ;  see  plate  4.) 
REVERSE. 


25 


Gf-ST  -IT  T? 


25 


30 


35 


40 


H  <r-Ti<r 


30 


I- 


T  T? 


35 


<x  4-TT  T 
ET<T*  - 


T—  TT<T 


40 


rf 

_.-Ax 


LETTERS   FROM   PHfENICIA   AND   SYRIA. 


95 


No.  46. 

(BU.  91-5-9,82;    2£m.  by  lHin- 


OBVERSE. 


+11    StTT 


ff 


<T-ffif  T? 


^ry   ^4fl  ^  Hf-tt. 

sfe  r    *fi  ^T<T  1 5 


EDGE. 


REVERSE. 


10         >^<  *1T4*(?) 


TUT   ^TT   — 


96 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  47. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  27;  2|  in.  by  2iin.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


TJ£P-^    -Hi    Eff- 

46. !3&tT ar- 


?)  5 


*^ti:T  43$&&%8%l 
*J—I  •^A^RsSSKi 

•fsnip^ii^ 

1  -TH      :  10 

1T4^ 


af 


EDGE. 


LETTERS    FROM   THE   GOVERNOR    OF    THE   CITY    OF    KHASUR.         97 


No.  47. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  27.) 


KEVERSE. 


•'  T  I-         - 

; '._"  : :;; 


98 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  48. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  65;  3J  in.  by  2f  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


r 


7<T  HF-ft 


TTl  Hf-tt 


«r 


R    HF- 


BL< 


15 


EDGE. 


i   Or 


LETTERS    FROM    THE   GOVERNOR   OF   THE   CITY   OF   KHASUR.        99 


No.  48. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  65  ;  see  plate  16.) 
REVERSE. 


20 


25 


M        -HI    m 


3M  ^TT  g<  HI  £U 
3T   4r    ^1       <I^iT 


20 


25 


O  2 


100 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  49. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  45;    4J  in.  by  3j  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


n  HF-*  H« 


:T!  HF- 


H«  3T-T 


rr 


HF-  r- 


F-  rfw:    I- 


THF- 


10 


HF-«L 

<  ^ 
HF-  4 
T?^r  ^ 

H<!   -HF- 


15 


^r  -HF- 


?     < 


s±T?  2° 

EDGE. 


LETTERS    FROM    YAPAKHI. 


101 


No.  49. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  45.) 


REVERSE. 


25 


•Hi 


T- 


n 


25 


102 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  50. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  22;    4|in.  by  3f  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


HF- 


TH 


rr 


10 


*  <m 


kT  * 


yy 


<ynry<y 


<  Jt 


yy    -T 


T  T'fflf'   -Hf- 


15 


EDGE. 

^y*  REVERSE. 

20 


25 


30 


LETTERS    FROM    YAl'AKHI. 


103 


No.  51. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  16;    3  in.  by  2^  in.  ;  see  plate  5.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


tfcTSf   T 

Ifflf    HW 


•*•  s«  « 

fi  yy 
^ 

M 


-T     H 

T?   <y 


10 


15  EDGE. 


REVERSE. 


20 


<y<y<y 


104 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  52. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  59;  3f  in.  by  2  Jin.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


HP- 


f- 


&fi   HF-  4 
T    4-    £&r 

w   H4  n 


-Hf- 


rr 


rr 
HF-II 


i  ^-r  5 


<m 


«  <m  r?  t^rl 

/  i 


10 


r?  4- 


r? 


iir 


-r 


r  <r-* 
r^<  - 
r«< 


15 


EDGE. 


LETTERS    FROM    WIDYA. 


105 


No.  52. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  59;    see  plate  14.) 


REVERSE. 


20 


3T 


20 


$BSRgsig§E) 

r  mm 

•IT  «f 


106 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  53. 

(BU.  88-10-13,   14;   3j  in.   by  2f  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


R£T  T 
Hf-4 


=W  -HF-  T«< 

F-4    £T4 
^y  ^y  y  & 

34  rr 


5 


yy 


<m 


<U! 

V 


>§! 


10 


'  -T  ET[ 

4-«-  ©  s£*  -Ms 


REVERSE. 


20 


r  T? 


S  -Hf-*  4*  H4*(?) 


20 


1  Here  the  scribe  began  to  write 
character  are  visible. 


-  ,  but  erased  it  ;  the  traces  of  the  first 


LETTERS    FROM    WIDYA. 


107 


No.  54. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  75;    3£in.  by  2fin.  ;    see  plate  21.) 

OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


~TT<T     Hf-U    ^ 

4  KPT  HF-  T«<  3^n  HF- 

£T   HF- 


TT 


TT 


£T   TT 


T? 


HF-U   ^ff 
fl  ^  ^T    ^T    <f 


fl  "4- 
-HF-    4    <T-IT 
<  V  T 


HF-ll 


-IT    T^    4- 


REVERSE. 


ff    4-    ^T    ^^     HF-U    3 
^=     HF-      4 


P  '2 


108 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

No.  55. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  2;  3|  in.  by  3  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


ff>4Y(?) 


rr 


*  34  * 

*  v 

* 


r 


r? 


10 


r?  «r- 


_±5Y* 
»^Y 


EEVERSE. 


20 


25 


r?^ 
-rr<r 


20 


25 


LETTERS    FROM   PU-ADDA. 


109 


No.  56, 


(BU.  88-10-13,   10 ;  3f  in.  by  3  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


-HF-  4    3T4 


H  «g£ 

-TT4 


&  -HP-  S  T 


£TT  4- 


TKT  H4  IT 

HF-flL 


< 


E* 


T?  7^  H  ^  ^ 


£TT  4T 
*  -HF-  1 


•HI"  K 


£^f  10 


4 


4 


H  -HF-  4 

^    ^ 

<EI  rc  4- 


-HF-  T"*W  T—  15 


-HF-  ^  H 


*  -HF-  ?^  T-  J 


(REVERSE  BLANK.) 


110 


TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


10 


15 


No.  57. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  57;  4iin.  by  3|in.) 
OBVERSE. 


YY 


ttg? 

&i  • 

(TO      p^ 
?B 

a. 


T 


f- 


F- 


YY>Y  *          ^-VV         *r> 
Y44         >^» 


-rr<r 


IB    -rr<r 


-Hf-  1 

<y-© 


-Hf- 
M 


10 


EDGE. 


LETTER    FROM   YABITIRI. 


Ill 


No.  57. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  57.) 


REVERSE. 


20 


25 


30 


35 


20 


Hf* 


25 

:n<T 


SB 


?£T  nr  n^ 


3=TT 


El^(?p35 

«^w   /r\\  •?'/;• 


f*-l<*(?)  ,!!*(?) 


112 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  58. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  64;  2J  in.  by  2  in. ;   see  plate  15.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


H« 


H« 


mm 


T? 


r  n 


HF- 


^4  p  -rr<y 
^r  -TH  ^ 


ru  ^ 


HM  K  10 

*  (?)  EDGE. 


REVERSE. 


HfT 


Ef  HI 


[Traces  of  impressions  from  a  Babylonian  cylinder- 
seal  are  here  visible.] 


1  This  line  is  written  over  an  erasure 


LETTER    FROM    WYASHDATA. 

No.  59. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  29  ;  2f  in.  by  2^  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


113 


10 


TfeT"    ^    -TT<T    Hf-HL 

<HF-  4  <  HF-  r^  ^n 


-TW 


Hf-tt  ^!YT 


< 


UrU  ^ 


<in  Hf-a  ^n 

(K:   4-TT  F  >«= 10 


•HT 


15 


20 


1 

EDGE. 

««^ 

4- 


15 


•HI 


20 


LETTER    FROM   BAYAWI. 


115 


No.  60. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  34  ;    2f  in.  by  2f  in.  ;   see  plate  7.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


fM 


4 


H«  ~ 


4 


Ef    5 


WIT 


<T-    Ifflf 


B< 


10 


EDGE. 


REVEKSE. 


15 


-T 


1  Partly  effaced  by  what  appears  to  be  the  impression  of  an  Egyptian  seal. 


Q  2 


116 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  61. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  74;   2f  in.  by  2-^  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


T? 


2M 


H« 


L! 


<T- 


H« 


rif=    5:    T 


>— w  ^  >->-»¥     1 E 

£3      ^       >w_      J±|f   10 
EDGE. 


1    Written  over  an  erasure. 


LETTER    FROM    LABAVVI. 


117 


No.  61. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  74  ;    see  plate  21.) 


EEVERSE. 


20 


25 


30 


f-  £T*  TIT 


Hf 


IT 


T   T-  IT 


^    «:T4    IT    ^TT    T 
<H3f    ^TTT-    n    <IH 


118 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  62. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  8  ;    3j  in.  by  2|  in.  ;  see  plate  2.) 

OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


TO 


AT    art 


3:R     HF-     4 

9  H<T  r?  HF- 


10 


HF-     8L<   - 

(ir    r? 


« 


15 


REVERSE. 


20 


25 


20 


-Hf- 


r? 


25 


LETTERS    FROM    MILKILI. 


119 


No.  63. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  50;  3jin.  by  2|iD.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


T 
w  -TT<T 


5 


9 


Hf- 


<T-ffif   4- 


?^[J[* 
^x 


SL! 


15 

f     ^T_ 
EDGE. 


(REVERSE  BLANK.) 


120 


TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  64. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  15;  3^  in.  by  2f  in.  ;  see  plate  5.) 


ca 

01 


OBVERSE. 


Y 


TrrT 


rrru 

-^  TY* 


10 


-*«    Y 


Twr     ~rj  -HP-  BL<  r-  >?»  ^ 
^^  x  r-T 


<r- 


oi 


I 


TT<T    - 


•— \  -»*>-i 

&  4*10 

©  4 


HF- 


rr  sr 


r 


3^  15  EDGE. 


REVERSE. 


20 


25 


30 


r    - 


4K  ^  ^rr*  -rr<r 
j^r  -«  ^rr  r?  ^r  -rr<r 
n  gu  <m  ^rr  r-  j^rr  4 
^r  -r^  H<T  <r-  ^rr  4  ^  n 


20 


25 


ii  \i  i 

5<  4> 


4-  ^  <r-  H 


30 

EDGE. 


LETIER    FKOM    SHIBTI-ADDA. 


121 


No.  65. 

(BQ.  88-10-13,   36;    2|in.  by  2±  in.) 
OBVERSE. 


10 


^     CMf 


-YT<T 


10 


EDGE. 


REVERSE. 


15 


20 


T   3=fi  ~f 

-^  HM 


<II!      fll 


15 


20 


122 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  66. 

(BU.   88-10-13,   61;   Sin.   by  2f  in.  ;    see  plate  15.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


I 


THF- 


4-TT 


>f  flL 


REVERSE. 


15 


T 


yy 

IT 


1  Erased  by  the  scribe. 


10 


15 


LETTERS    FROM    SHU  ARDATA. 


123 


No.  67. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  5  ;  4  in.  by  3|in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


r  i  ^^  -TKT  TII  ^r 
TH  r  £r  «T-  <MT<T  ^ 
r«<  r  ^ 

<  -l<  v  <KiT 


r  r 


T  - 


TH  TH  ^r?  ^  H 

*  ^T*  T  £1!  ^ 


^TTT  *  10 


TT<T  T&raf* 


T   T 

J  I  ^^  -TT<T  Til* 
T  ^     ' 


HfH  Til* 
T 
T 


Til 


-'&'£Y£Y         'M:        *-"£         '$£%  *^#*&£5£S$$$<» 

i-V<?iv-IPI        S£^  •«        tfefc^         ^\?&&£e&33&£e& 

&*  ~$*l 

:<Y^T      ^^<T^]^^ 
T 


REVERSE.1 

20 


TT 


:^- 


-*ET 


^TT<T   Til  ^  A 


30 


35 

EDGE. 


1  The  characters  on  Reverse  are  much  defaced  ;  the  reading  is  therefore  doubtful. 

R  2 


124 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  68. 

(BU.   88-10-13,   54;  3f  in.  by  2| in.  ;  see  plate  12.) 

OBVERSE. 


10 


-yy<y 


=SF  r 

t  y  Til  £E  ^y 

in  y    T^  -yy<y 


REVERSE. 


15 


^y  «r 


15 


LETTERS    FROM    SHU  ARDATA. 


125 


No.  69. 

(BU.   88-10-13,   19;  3  in.  by  2^  in. ;  see  plate  5.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


T 


<MT<T 


HfU 


10 


REVERSE.1 


15     Hh 


EDGE. 


15 


1   Ou  plate  5  the  tablet  is  photographed  upside  down  to  show  the  ends  of  lines  4,  6-8, 
11-12  of  the  Obverse. 


126 


TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  70. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  25;    2-^f  in.  by  2f  in.) 

OBVERSE. 


10 


<HT 


T? 


<MI  ^  >ET  Hf-  ^T  i?  r- 


<f5 


H 


REVERSE. 


15 


20 


25 


IT  <T- 


Hh 


<in 


15 


20 


<HT 


?? 


25 


LETTERS  FROM  PALESTINE. 


127 


NO,  71. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  1;  3f  in.  by  2f  in. ;  see  plate  1.) 


CO 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


^  i?£T  r 


X 


TrY 
^v 

~r 


TT 


YtT 


TY 


CO 

01 -^. 


il  3:fl  HF- 


T^  (?) 

4  3tf*  v 
T£T  4  *^TT 

il 


JT  3:1?  HP-  T^ 

f*(?)  9  -!T4fT  -Hf-  5 
1  <K  Tr  4-  ^T  T^ 

314 


£TT  —  ^ft  H4* 

Sy  3yy*  <E!  T?  4-   •» 

-T  3* 

<^<?,    ^ 


10 


Til 


15 


kal   <T-  1 
iH"    -!ET    ^ 


:C:     »ri:Y;  EDGE. 


REVERSE. 


20 


25 


30 


<T- 


»-  20 


Til  3:fl 


<Hfif 


T?  4- 


Til 


HF-  V-  4 
4-  r<^ 
^T?  <T-  I 

*T   3M 

3:     3:T 

a 


^  ^T^f  25 


=YY        *) 


EDGE. 


128 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  72. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  9;    3f  in.  by2jin.) 


OBVERSE. 


LETTERS    FROM    PALESTINE. 


129 


No.  72, 


(BU.  88-10-13;  9;   see  plate  3.) 


REVERSE. 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


T-  T 


~£T  T-  <T<T<T  ^T  -J!! 


:yy    25 


T^T  4-  -Hf-  ^T  ^T  30 


T  HI  SL! 


-TT<T  ^T  35 


T- 


HfKT 


^  ^  H  1<T 


-Hf-  ^-T 


-  3T-T 


H  <!!! 


40 


45 


EDGE. 


130 


TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  73. 

(BU.   88-JO--13,  33;  2|in.  by  2  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


EDGE. 


REVERSE. 


15 


20 


25 


-T  <r- 


15 


y  -y  <<  ^ 

sf^y  ^y  y 


<r- 


y  - 


20 


-y 


25 


1  Written  over  an  erasure. 


LETTER    FROM    DAGAN-TAKALA, 


131 


No.  74. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  4;  3}^  in.  by  2fin. ;  see  plate  1.) 


10 


15 


IT- 


T 


tt*  -IT 


TT 


-4- 


£T 


ET      -T 


^illii! 


^T* 


i 


15 


REVERSE. 


20 


3T    -Hf- 

*(?)  ^*c?> 


-T**(0 


s  2 


132 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  75. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  66;  2jm.  by  2jin.;    see  plate  16.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


Hf-R     ffifl 


«f 


f<T 


<  v 


<X! 


10  EDGE. 


(REVERSE  BLA.NK.) 


LETTER    FROM    ZIDRI  ARA. 


133 


No.  76. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  23;  2j  in.  by  2jin.  ;  see  plate  6.) 

OBVERSE. 


10 


r^y  r 
HF-  r 


~rT*  -HF-  «r  ^TT 


«r- 


T  3=  <r- 


«T   ^   -HF-    T^  £ 


«T 


Hh    T    ^^>   HfM*  10 


n  -HF-  «r 


EDGE. 


15 


KEVERSE. 


-HP  «T  ~T?  -HF- 


134 


TELL   EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

No.  77. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  67;   2-^  in.  by  2jin.) 
OBVERSE. 


LETTER   FORM    AN    INHABITANT   OF   THE   CITY   OF   GUBBU  (?).     135 


No.  78. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  35;    2|in.  by  2fVin. ;   see  plate  7.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


<MT<T 


EL! 

10  EDGE. 


REVERSE. 


15 


-ui 


ryr 


-IT 


15 


/ 


136 


TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


No.  79. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  30;  2|-in.  by  2-^ in.  ;  see  plate  6.) 

OBVERSE. 


W&®& 

mg 


TYY 


10 


<m 


ff 


-TH 


<in 


10  EDGE. 


15 


n 


j1 


REVERSE. 


<m 


r? 


15 


1  These  traces  of  characters  belong  to  a  letter  which  the  scribe  wrote  upon  the  Reverse 
and  afterwards  erased. 

2  The  scribe  omitted  to  erase  these  lines,  which  belong  to  another  letter  previously 
written  on  this  tablet. 


LETTERS    FROM    UNKNOWN    DISTRICTS. 


137 


No.  80. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  24  ;  3  in.  by  2£  in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


15 


.  Cf-Si     <    :  -^  - 

v   *    a  *    >— .JvV^'VxS^y? 

•HP-*  4    ^Tt  t&^gc, 

^S^&^fcSSS^ 

^  ^.^:sxs<^fe^. 


KtyOCS" 

l-      "  ~  'l-- ;.--  ~~-  ~ ':'  -'•'-  -'•'     ~~^<'<      A\  ~~-  -;-- 

-V  '   ->^-~  5-- 


t-^---   .--^  -.-    - 
»•        I  T  I  T  ^~  I  C3 


-    -  "„•"'-     -"     -    -    ,- 

ff£^tf&&. 


fiL< 


10 


15  EDGE. 


REVERSE. 


20 


25 


20 


y  T^  £!  i^J 


25 


LETTERS   FROM    UNKNOWN    DISTRICTS. 


139 


No.  81. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  28;  3  in.  by2iin.; 
OBVERSE. 


10 


HF- 


¥  *       Vf>-Y 

T         "*-.ZT  C 

I          ^IH 


Hf-    T^< 
v  ^T  v 
R     4- 
^^ 

HF- 
I? 


THf-(?)  ^* 
e=    Hh 


,11     <T 


10 


(REVERSE  BLANK.) 


T  2 


140 


TELL    EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


No.  82. 

(BU.   88-10-13,  69;  4^  in.  by  4|in.) 


OBVERSE. 


10 


TUf  T? 


HM  <« 

<MT<T  <r 


T? 


•ST  <II!  ^  ^r  H   ^  ^1 

.          l    ^ 


<MT<T 


*Mj:.'  :                                                                                        ^ : 
ivw  *  /o\0;'  '  iS»- 


10 


TEXT    RELATING   TO   NERGAL,    IRISHKIGAL   AND   NA.MTAR.  141 


NO.  82. 

(BU.  88-10-13,  69;  see  plate  17.) 


REVEKSE. 


20    fpiilf!Mr:^iu<r:' 


25 


30 


35 


20 

tMMBStf* 


:^r-M 
25 


frT? 


^4  T 


30 


35 


40 


LIST   OF   PROPER   NAMES. 


Ubi,  country  near  Damascus,  cf.  (?)  Hobah   PQ'in,  Gen.  xiv.  15,  Eg.  8 
37,  57.  59.  62.  63  (\A  tf-6/);  cf.  B.  142,  rev.  12  (V  tf-bi). 


Abi-milki,  governor  (?)  of  Tyre  (cf.  -iyra^):  28,  2;  f  30,  2f  (Y 

29,  2;f  31,2;f  cf.  B.  99,  2f  (A-bi-^g^);  cf.  also  B.  [98,  2f];  162,  2f 
(Y  A-bi-mil-ki). 

Abda:  82,  21  («f  (?)  46-do-a). 

Abd-Asirta,  Abd-Asratu  (cf.  Phoen.  mnTO  "TO  ;  'AySSaorpaTo?)  :  12,  24. 
30;  14,  25;  15,  18.  25;  18,  11.  17.  31;  19,  41;  20,  38;  44,  6.  30. 
[35,  #  omitted];  cf.  B.  41,  27;  42,  12.  33;  45,  27.  36;  48,  [64.]  68;  [49, 
obv.23?;]  51,  obv.  24;  52,  obv.  9.  [rev.  14.]  26;  [53,12?.  28?;]  54,18. 
21;  60,18.  [47;]  61,13.  [68;]  72,17;  74,8;  75,  [12.]  22.  [44;]  [76,36;] 
79,  29.  [39  ;]  [84,  9  ;]  (f  Abd-a-si-ir-ta);  cf.  also  B.  73,  8  (^Abd-^^-a-si- 
ir-ti);  B.  86,  obv.  5;  [214,  12]  (Y  Abd-a-si-ir-ti);  B.71,70;  76,  65  (Abd- 
a-si-ir-ti);  B.  71,  19  (Abd-]  a-si-ir-ti);  B.  51,  obv.  11.  19  ;  [66,7;]  77,9; 
89,  7.  18.  47.  58  (Abd-a-si-ir-ta);—  16,  12  ;  cf.  B.  60,8  (f  fc^  Abd-a-si-ir- 
to,  "A.'s  people"?);—  29,68;  c/.B.97,2f  (T  Abd-^  Jf-ds-ra-tum);  [28,36;] 
cf.  B.  50,  obv.  19;  184,  30  (f  Abd-ds-ra-tum)  ;  [17,  10;]  B.  58,  29.  [38?.] 
51  (f  Abd-ds-ra-ti);  cf.  ako  B.  50,  obv.  18  (f  Abd-^tf-  ds-ra-ti)  and 
B.  58,  103.  [116?];  71,  56.  68  (Abd-d*-ra-ti)  ;  23,  23  (f  Abd-ds-ra-ta)  ; 
—cf.  also  (?)  33,  3f  (Y  Abd-^J^-  HfY<T)- 

Abdi-astati  (c/.(?)  Abd-Asratu)  :  34,  3  f  (Y  Ab-di-ds-ta-ti). 
Abdi-kar§i(?)  :  48,  3,t  (Y  Abdi(?)-kar(or  tir?)-si). 

Abdi-milki,  son  of  Abd-Asirta:  20,  37;  cf.  B.  134,  3t  (]  Abdi-^^)-—  40, 
17.  24  (Abdi-t^). 

Abdirama,  son  of  Abd-Asirta  :   20,  36  (Y  Abd-i-ra-ma). 

*  The  numbers  printed  in  thick  type  refer  to  the  numbers  of  the  tablets,  and  the  others  to  the 
lines.  E.g.,  "  12,  24.  30  "  =  No.  12,  lines  24  and  30.  Restorations  of  lost  portions  of  the  names  are 
indicated  by  the  numbers  \vithin  square  brackets,  f  marks  a  passage  in  which  the  person  is  named 
as  the  writer,  or  sender,  of  the  tablet,  while  J  is  used  for  the  person  addressed.  Homophonous  signs 
have  been  distinguished  by  means  of  accents.  Eeferences  have  been  given  (e.g.,  "  B.  41,  27  ")  to 
the  passages  in  the  Berlin  edition  in  which  the  names  in  this  List  also  occur. 


144  TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

Abbilja:  42,  12;  73,  19.  23  (|  Ab-bi-ha). 

A(?)bi(?)sima,  city  in  the  country  of  Idumaea  :  64,  28  ("-^  ^-bi-si-ma). 

Abitu  (?):  43,  34.  (\A  A-bi-tu)  ;  43,  42  (\A  4-Jfr.  .....  ). 

Yabitiri,  governor  (?)  of  Joppa  and  Gaza:  57,  4f  (f  Ya-bi-ti-ri). 

U(?)garit,  country,  or  city,  in  Phoenicia  (?)  :  1,   39    (V  tf-ga-ri-it)  ;    30,  55 

(-£YY  ti-ga-ri-it  <|gf);  cf.  also  B.  128,  9  (-tfY  ti-ga-ri-ti)  and  B.  76,  6 

(*£yy  KM  tf-ga-ri-ti). 
Ida  .....  :  46,  5  (f  f-da-  .....  ). 

W(?)idya,  c/.  (?)  Pers.  $  fy  f<Y  ff  y<"~»  governor  of  Askelon  :  52,  3  ;f  53,  3  ;f 
54,  4;f  cf.  B.  [118,  4  ;f]  119,  5;t  121,  5;t  122,  3f  (f  *Y—  «fya). 

Adda-mihir:  72,  45;  c/.  B.  167,  2f  (Y  »>f-  Adda-mt-hir);  cf.  also  B.  168,  3f 
([Y?]  HP  Adda-mi-hi-ir)  and  B.  143,  17  (f  ^-ad-dw-mi-^HI). 

Udumu,    city    in    the    country   of    Idumaea   (cf.  Q'T^,  5>OOjf,    'ISov/j,aia, 

Eg.  fl  !&  c-=a  ^    1     )  :  64,  24  (-dV  U-du-mu\ 
1  2_L  Jna  r^^i  / 

Iddin-Adda  (?)  :  20,  37  (|  ^  -*f  ^HfT). 

Aduri,  city  in  the  country  of  Idumaea  (cf.  T?TN)  :  64,  24  (^ff  A-du-ri). 

Azzati,  Gaza  (n^,  LXX.  r^ga,  Q\>  Eg.  zl  ^  ^  "^  ]  (]  J^)  :  57,  32 


Aziru,  son  of  Abd-Asirta  (cf.  ^W,  -n):  13,  7;  18,  20;  19,  20. 
24;  [34,  8;]  45,  13.  35.  39;  66,  51.  [62];  cf.  B.  34,  2f;  35,  2f;  37, 

t  2  f;  38,  2.f  38  ;  41,  26  ;  [45,  47  ?;]  76,  9;  [83,  8  ;]  91,  10.  21  (]A-zi-ru}  ; 

*  cf.  also  B.  58,  23.  35  (A-zi-ru);  13,  16.  69;  19,  37;  29,  68;  35,  2f;  cf. 
B.  31,  2f;  34a,4|;  39,  11.  27.  35;  40,  2f;  45,  39;  58,  46.  60.  71.  94.  106. 
110.  114;  91,  9;  128,  7  (Y  A-zi-ri);  28,  35.  40.  58.  70;  30,  61.  67;  36, 
24.  27.  39  ;  41,  21.  27.  32.  34.  35  (Y  A-zi-ra)  ;  43,  28  ;  cf.  B.  36,  3f;  69, 
15  ;  71,  21  (?)  (Y  A-zi-  .....  )  ;—  cf.  also  (?)  B.  45,  33  (Y  A-za-ru). 

A'itu(P)gama  :  37,  28.  37.  60  (Y  A-i-tu(?)-ga-ma). 

Akka,  Accho  (^  "A^  \|^,  Phoen.  ^,  oal,  Eg.  ^  \  ^^  ):  [17,  46  ;]  cj. 
B.  94,  5;  95,  3.  [16?]  29  (*£fl  Ak-ka  <Jgf)  ;  cf.  also  B.  8,  19;  93,4 
(^Ak-ka)  ;  B.  8,  38  (Ak-ka-ai-u);  and  B.  68,  8  (^YY  Ah-  .....  ). 

Akiya  :  58,  3  (Y  A-ki-ya). 

Yaki-Adda:  41,  15.  18  (Ya-ki-^^-Adda). 

Akizzi,  governor  of  the  city  of  Qatna:  36,  2f;  [37,  2f];  cf.  B.  229,  2f  Of 
A-ki-iz-zi). 

Ilutu(?):  82,  22  («f  I-lu-tu). 

Ili-milku  (cf.  )  :  30,  45  (Y  lli-milki);  cf.  (?)  B.  102,  36  (Y  I-U-mil-ku). 


LIST   OF   PROPER    NAMES.  145 

Alasiya,  Alasiya  (cf.  Eg.  (J  ^  <  ^  &  J^  )  :  5,  2  f-  [30?]  ;  6,  1  f  ;  cf.  B.  12,  3  1; 
[13,  3  ;f]  15,  2  f  (Sarru  V  A-la-Si-ya)  ;  7,  2  t(*a/vM  \A  .i-A.Y-.sj-ya)  ;  13,  52 
(*£  A-la-si-ya);  13,  59  (A-la-Si-a  {-a  ?]  )  ;  5,33;  [6,  39?]  (A-la-si-ya);  cf. 
also  B.  11,  2f  (sarri(ri)  *£  A-la-si-ya). 

Am(P),  Amma,  Ammiya:  46,4;  cf.  B.  143,  16;  160,9;  163,  8  (\A  Am  <Jgf)  ; 

17,  7  (-tyy  Am-ma);   37,  58  (V  Am-ma);  12,  25;  15,  27  ;    [c/.  B.  89,  13] 
(-tYY  Am-mi-ya);  45,  14;  c/.  B.  91,  11  (^  Am-wi-ya). 

Um(?)ma  :  82,  25  Hf-  tfm(?)-ma). 

Ambi:  23,  20;  c/.  B.  60,  11.  40;  72,  31;  74,  19  (^H  Am-bi);  cf.  also 
B.  128,  12.  16  (-tyy  Am-bi  <gf). 

Amanu,  Amen  (<?/.  Eg.  \  «  ^J  ):  1,  46  ;  8,  15.  24.  76  («f  A-ma-nu-um)  ;  22, 

5  («~>=f-  A-ma-nd)  ;  21,  3  (-4"  -4-/Ma-a»  .....  ). 
Aman-masasanu  (?)  :  13,  51  (y  A-ma-an-ma-sd-sd-nu  ?). 

Amanappa  (<•/.  Eg.  [)  «  (|  n  ):  12,  51;  15,  1  J;  c/.  B.  75,  9  (y  A-ma-an-ap-pa); 
[21,  l?t;  22,  If]  (y  A-ma-anrab-M). 

f\    J  '  "  "  *     ^^  C\    v 

Ammunira,  governor  (?)  of  Beyrut  (c/.   Eg.   (1          .  _n  Jf  1:    16,  29 

1  AWW^         O          J  _  /' 

mu-ni-ra);  26,  3  f  ;  [27,  2  1]  (Am-mu-ni-ra). 
Immuriya  :  see  MimniuiiTa. 

Amurru(?),  country  of  the  Amorites(?,  cf.  "HnM,   Eg.   jj  ^  4^% 

21,  8  (^A-mu-ri);  13,  14;  15,  11.  15;  27,  24;  44,  5.  21.  29.  35;  cf.  B.  45, 
63;  48,  69;  92,  rev.  32  ;  97,  8.  [15  ?]  ;  146,  16  ;  184,  39  (\A  A^nur-ri)  ; 
cf.  also  B.  69,  17  (V  A-mur-ra)  •  B.  77,  10  (\A  A-mur-ra-a)  ;  B.  92, 
obv.  1  1  (£5£  --yy  A-mu-ur-ra)  ;  B.  171,  9  (\A  y«^  J-ww-n)  ;  B.  56,  38 
(V  A-mur-  .....  )  ;  and  (?)  B.  34,  14  (\A  A-mur-ra  (?)  .....  ). 

luni,  a  wife  of  Tusratta:  11,  52.  54  (<fe-  I-te-ni). 

*  V  A*  / 

A(?)nu'amma    (cf.   (?)    Eg.  M^£  S^^)  :    43,  8  (--yy  &•-  nu-am-wa); 

11          O          /WA^\  / 

43,  2  Kyy  .4(?)-  ..........  ). 

Yanhamu,  envoy  of  Amenophis  IV.  :  62,  11  ;  cf.  B.  48,  23  ;  52,  rev.  4;  6L 
73  ;  101,  obv.  13.  rev.  12  ;  184,  22;  185,  [5.]  7.  11.  13.  [22]  (y  Ya-an-ha-wu)  ; 
14,  31.  39  ;  €f.  B.  48,  48  ;  51,  obv.  [15.]  35  ;  128,  It  (y  Ya-an-ha-mi)  -,  25, 
19;  64,  It;  cf.  B.  45,  61  (y  Ya-an-ha-?ni)  ;  14,  40  (y  Ya-ha-mi)  ;  [24,48]; 
57,  24;  60,10;  65,14;  cf.  B.  43,  36.  37;  [110,  25]  fl  Ya-an-ha-ma)  ; 

18,  26;  21,  15  (y  Ya-an-ha-  .....  )  ;—cf.  also  B.  102,  28  (Q?]  f-m-la-mu)  ; 
andB.  105,  rev.  11  (y  ^-'-m-Aa-m«). 

Inisa  .....  (?)  :  77,  12  (~-yy  f-ni-sd-si  (?)-  .....  ). 

U 


146  TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


Yapu,  Joppa  (iD?,  Ul>,  -^Q    ]aa»  'IOTTTTT;,  Eg.  s  57,  33;  71,  20 


(-SYY  FO^M)  ;  cf.  B.  58,  6  (--Yf  Ya-a-pu)  ;  and  B.  58,  86  (\A  ^  Ya-pu). 

Yapa-Adda,  probably  of  Alasiya  :  13,  16.  59.  69  ;  14,  26  ;  cf.  B.  44,  rev.  28  ; 

[45,  65]  ;  48,  [29.]  42  ;  51,  obv.  30.  edge  3  ;  61,  [26.]  52  ;  63,  31.  34.  44; 

77,  19  ;  128,  2  t  (T  Ya-pa-  ->f  <^HfY)  5  cf.  also  (?)  B.  88,  fragment  3  (f 


Yapahi,  governor  (?)  of  Gezer  :  49,  3f;  50,  4f;  51,  3  f  Of  Ya-pa-hi). 
Arwada,  Arvad  (THM,  >O>]  *CDO>O>1,  JL"\%  'OpQwa-ia,  Ruwdd,  Eg.     A  ^^ 
*""*    1    ,():§<=>  ~L%    1    ):  28,  59;  44,  13.  16:    c/.  B.  51,  obv.  12. 

(S     fwvT  ^  S>1  D      jTB^fl/ 


18.   [edge  5;    79,  30?].     (^YJ  ^lr-^y—  da);  and(?)  [B.  162,  15]  (- 


Urza  (?) :  56,  3;  cf.  B.  153,  4  (-£YJ  *Y' 

Arzawya,  Arza'(u)ya  (?) :  37,  36.  56  (Y  Ar-za-u-ya) ;  43,  26.  33;   cf.  B.  125, 

2  f;  [126,  4  f]  (Y  Ar-za-*]-  *Y-)  ;  cf.  also  B.  [155,  2  t?;]  158,  27  (Y  Ar-za- 

*Y-)  5  and  105,  obv.  7  (Ar-sa-*]*-). 
Yarimuta    (cf.  nW£»  HiE*^):  12,  16;    13,  55;  19,  17;  cf.  B.  57,  rev.  1; 

61,  74;    79,  13;  [89,  40?;]  (\A  Ya-ri-mu-ta)  ;  cf.  also  B.  80,  27  (\A  Ya- 

ri-im-mu-ta). 

Irqata,  city,  or  country,  in  Syria  (cf.  Eg.  ft  ^  ~^  ^v  c    ^ V  42,  2  f.  3.  8,  10. 

15.  18.  [23]  ;  cf.  B.  77,  12.  36;  79,  26  (--YJ  /»^«-to) ;  cf.  also  B.  91,  10 

(^  Jr-qa-ta)  ;  and  (?)  B.  158,  22  (^YY  Ir~1at  (?)- )• 

Araru  :  64,  25  («~£YY  A-ra-ru). 

Iriskigal,  heroine  of  a  mythological  legend  :  82,  2  (I-ri-is-ki-i-ga-a-aC) ;  82, 

7  (I(?)-ri(?)-is(?)-ki-i-ga-al);  82,  29  (l-ri-ts-ki-4-gal) ;  c/.  B.  234,  rev.  1; 

239,  a,  4.  6  (1-ri-is-ki-gal}. 

Artassumara :  9,  19  (Y  Ar-ta-ds-su-ma-ra). 

Wisuya  (?) :  64,  18  (Y  *Y-  M^a)- 

Usbarra  (?)  :  7,  25  (Y  Us-bar-ra)  ;  cf.  (?)  B.  158,  15  (Y  Us- ). 

Wyasdata  (?),  cf.  (?)  Pers.  ^  <-<  Y<^  Y^rY  TT  YTY  ^YfY  :  59>  3t;  72,   12.   15 
(Y  ^-ds-da-ta). 

Iskuru(?):  14,  53;  cf.  B.  48,  85  (Y  ^\-ku^u). 
Assurayu,  Assyrian :  2,  31  (As-sur-ra-ai-u)  ;  cf.  B.  9,  3  (V1 

Istar  (cf.  Eg.  p^  (j  ^  ^  ^) :  8,  24.  83  (?) ;  10, 13.  19  (?).  26,  31  Hh  ^ 
Astarti:  64,  21  (-^Y  As-tar-ti);  43,  10  (^YY  As-tar-ti}. 
Itagamapa'iri,  of  the  city  of  Qidsi :  30,  59  (Y  l-ta-ga-ma-pa-*]*-  -ri). 


LIST   OF    PROPER    NAMES.  147 

Itakkama :  43,  31  (f  I-ta->Z]-ka-ma) ;  cf.  B.  91,  25  (f  I-ta-ka-ma) ;  142,  obv. 
2  f  G  f-tak-ka-ma)  ;  rev.  20  (1-tak-ka-ma). 

Itilluna  (?)  :  7,  23  (|  f-*~<-lu-na). 

n 

Biya:  71,  16.  24.  30  (f  Bi-i-ya). 

Bayawi  (?)  :  60,  3f ;  c/.  B.  195,  3 1  (T  H  -  y*  -  &). 

B(?)uz(?)runa:  43,  13  ;  cf.  B.  205,  12  (--yf  Bu-uz-rurna). 

Bihura  (?)  :  see  Piljura. 

BiMsi  (?) :  64,  8.  13.  34  (^flf  Bi-hi-si). 

Bil-ra  (?)m (?)  :  7,  26  (f  Bi-  {l-ra(?)-am- ). 

BHtu(?)  (cf.  Brj\r^)  :  14,  54  (-*f  ^T). 

Binna  :  82,  22  (*-*%-  Bi-i-in-na). 

Bininima (?) :  64,  15  (|  Bi-m-i-nwna- ). 

Bi'ri,  Biri,  of  the  city  of  Hasabu:  24,  18  (f  Bi-*^-ri) ;  cf.  B.  160,  3f  (I  Bi- 
/-n)  ;  and  B.  45,  61  (f  Bi-ri). 

Burra-buriyas,  king  of  Kara-Duniyas  :  2,  3  f;  3,  2  f;  cf.  B.  4,  3  f;  [7,  2 1;]  8. 
3 1  (Bur^ra-bu-ri-ya-ds)  ;  c/.  also  B.  188,  obv.  7  (f  Bur-ra-bur-ya-ds)  ;  B, 
6,  2  t  ( -ra-bu-ri-ya-ds}  ;  and  B.  28,  Col.  I,  2  f  ( -bu-ra- 

ri-ya-ds). 

Biridiwi  (?),  of  Megiddo:  59,  19:  cf.  B.  Ill,  obv.  3f;  [113,  3  f;]  114,  3f; 
115,  3  f  (J  £i-ri-di-^). 

BiridaSwi  (?)  :  43,  7.  15.  33f.  (f  Bi-ri-da-ds-*]*-). 

Biruna,  Beyrut:  17,  16  ;  22,  20;  cf.  B.  53,  14;  55,  20;  65,  3  (--yf  Bi-ru-ma)  ; 
cf.  B.  75,  25  (-£fy  Bi-ru-na  <©)  ;  and  B.  86,  obv.  19  (--ff  <^[  Bi-ru-na}. 

Birapari  (?)  :  82,  24  (^  Bi-l-j-a-pa-ri). 

Biruta,   Beyrat    (cf.  Bijpvros,  ^CDO^O'HJD,  20^,   ii^jui  Eg.  J^!< 
]  1  JL.)  :  13'13;  44'  25;  c/'  B'  54'  20'  23  (-^fT  B{-m-ta)--cf.  also  26, 

4  (-tyy  Q  ^y?) ;  27, 12  (~sfl  <&  gj  ^y$) ;  B.  58, 77  (H:yy  y?  gj  y^) ; 
58,  11  [21.  52]  (^yy  y?  a  <IU  y-il) ;  58,  92  (^yy  yy  gj  yv  ^  <K:) . 
58, 96. 135  (-^yy  y|  gj). 

Bitili  (?,  cf.  ^Snri}):  35,  20;  c/.  B.  143,  3f.  28  (f  >~c-ft-~f ). 
Bit-NIN.IB. :  12,  31  (^  ^y  HI)  ;  c/.  B.  106,  16  (H^  ^M  «f  « 
Gubbu  :  sge  Gubla, 

u  2 


148  TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 


Gubla,  Byblos  fe?,  BiJ/9Xo»,  jj^,  A^v  Eg.    ^^K  ^     1    ):12,  3.  6. 

x  c^-  •    •  >\  U        71     Mk   tv/"vo  / 

12.  32.  48;  13,  3  ;  14,  3  ;  15,  4  ;  16,  8;  17,  19.  22.  [31.]  43.  44;  18,  4.  9. 
23;  19,  5;  20,  5.  12;  [21,26;]  22,  6;  23,  5;  25,  6;  27,  15.  20;  cf.  B.  41, 
4;  42,  4;  43,  4;  44,  obv.  4;  [45,  3;]  46,  5;  47,  [1?.]  4;  48,  4.  37.  53. 
[85];  49,  obv.  3;  50,  obv.  5;  51,  obv.  3;  52,  obv.  2;  56,  13.  20.  35;  58, 
123;  59,  obv.  4;  60,  51;  61,  [4.]  48.  66;  62,  [3.]  9.  13.  [33];  65,  2.  11; 
66,  4;  [67,  obv.  4;]  70,  4;  71,  31;  73,  20.  22.  36.  37;  74,  4;  75,  4.  24; 

77,  17;    79,  8;    80,  10.  26;   81,  9;    83,  6;    84,  16;    89,  9;    91,  2.  6.  16; 
184,  19.  24  (H:yy   Gub-la);  24,  3;  41,  73  (H^  Gub-li);   24,  12.  44  (^ff 
<Jgf  Gub-la);  45,  33  (^  Gub-la-a}  ;  45,  8.  9.  21  (H^  GWa)  ;  24,  7  (H^ 

<m  ^T  efW;  24,  5  (.<YY  £<y  e=yy-K)  ;  24,  10  (^yy  <jg  ^y  ^yy-&)  ; 

78,  3  (?;  --yy  Gub  (?)  -^S-);  c/.  also  12,  22  (H:yy  £«&;  /a  omitted  by  the 
scribe)  ;  22,  24  (*<yy  Gub  <^f  ;   la  omitted  by  the  scribe)  ;  B.  52,  rev. 
19;  [61,  78;]  71,  17;  184,  16  (^ft  Gub-la  <Jgf);  B.  80,  4  (^  Gu-ub-la)-, 
B.  92,  obv.  2  (--yy  £<y-w&-/a);    B.  128,  8  (^  Gu-ul4i  <J|J);    B.  186, 
obv.  13  (--yy  Ku-ub-li  <Jgf);  B.  76,  37  (--fl  <Jgf  Gt^6-  .....  );   B.  76, 

60  Kyy  <jg[  K<y-  ..........  >;  B.  87,  10  (^-yy  <|gf  y«-  ^y-M5(?)-/0; 

B.  87,  20  (-sfl  y«*  ^y-M6(?)-^);  and  B.  41,  28  (^  (rwWo-  .....  ). 


Gagaya  (?)  :  1,  38  (V  Ga-ga-ya). 

Gidsi:  see  Qidsi. 

Gizza:  43,  32  (\A  Gi-4z-za);  43,  27  ( 


Gazri,  Gezer  pJJ,  jlM,  Td^jpa):  50,  5;  c/.  B.  106,  8  (>^yy  Ga-.az-r  i^Jgf)  ; 
c/1  also  B.  103,  14  (V  Mf]?  Ga^-n  <|gf)  ;  B.  112,  22  (^  Gaz-ri); 
49,  4  ;  c/.  B.  155,  21  (^fT  ^ac-rz  <|gf)  ;  and  B.  173,  42  (\A  Gaz(?)-ri). 

Gula  .....  (?)  :  45,  3f  (?,  Gu-la-  .....  ).     See  also  Gubla. 
Gulati:  71,  17  (£-  Gu-la-tC)  ;  71,  24  (Gu-la-ti). 

Giliya,  envoy  of  Tusratta:  8,  25.  39.  71;  9,46;  11,19;  c/.  B.  22,  obv. 
18.  23;  23,  rev.  1;  24,  obv.  34.  39.  69;  rev.  [14.  15.?]  54bls-  57.  62.  63, 
64.  66.  68.  74;  27,  Col.  IV,  20.  [21.]  36.  37  (f~  Gi-li-ya};  cf.  also  B.  27. 
Col.  I,  91.  100;  Col.  II,  7;  Col.  IV,  26.  27  (f  Gi-li~i). 


Gilu-hipa  (Eg.  /$'  sister  of  Tusratta,  wife  of  Amenophis  III.  : 

9,  5.  41  (£-  Gi-lu-hi-pd). 

Gurrumma  (?)  :  7,  24  (ff  ?]  Gur  (?}-ru~um-ma). 


LIST   OF   PROPER   NAMES.  149 

1 

Dagan-takala  "  Dagon's  trust  "  :  [74,  3f;]  cf.  B.  129,  2f   (T  Hh  Da-ga-an- 
ta-ka-la)  ;  cf.  also  B.  129,  9.  13  (f  Da-ga-an-ta-ka-la). 

Dadu-hipa  :  see  Tatu(m)-hipa. 

(,  /OX  0  77  *  •  '        17 

pCTS;T,  Aapaaicos,     ;J.*.^..j>,  *OOnnmV>>  *£3QmSo>>'  JS$i 

Ijfi          ^):  43>  21  (^TT  DwuS-qa);    37,  63  (^fl  Ti-ma-ds-gi). 
Dunib  :  «^e  Tunip. 
Danuna  :  30,  52  (V  Da-nu-na). 
Dirid  (?)  :  82,  21  («f  Di-ri-id). 

Da§a(?)  :  37,  58  (f  Z>a(?)-s(i);  c/.(?)  B.  173,  14  (f  Ta-dS-su). 
Basra:  75,  3f;  c/.  B.  127,  3f  (I  l>a-a«-rM). 
Dusratta:  «g«  Tusratta. 


Zidri'ara  (?)  :  76,  3f;  cf.  B.  140,  3f;  141,  2f 

Zimrida,  of  Sidon:  14,  26;  28,49.  57.  68;  29,  66;  30,  11.  65;  cf.  B.  77,  18; 
104,  43  (f  Zi-im-ri-da);  cf.  also  B.  123,  of  (f  Zi-im-ri-di)  ;  and  B.  90,  4f 
(y  Zi-im-ri-id-di). 

Zinzar  :  37,  42  (V  Zi-4n-za-ar). 

Zaqara  (?):  1,  19  (J  Za-^a-ra). 

Zurata  :  72,  24.  31.  33.  42.  44;  cf.  B.  [48,  21?;]  93,  3f;  [145,  4f?]  (f  Zu-ra-ta). 

Zitadna,  of  Accho  :  32,  5f  (|  Zi-ta-ad-na)-,  cf.  B.  94,  4f;  95,  3f  (T  Za-ta-ad-na). 

n 

Ha  ........  :  80,  3f  cf.  also  (?)  B.  45,  65;  and  B.  52,  rev.  29  (Y  HP-  (?) 


Haya(?):  44,  2.  19  (y  /7a-*f~«);  c/.  also  (?)  B.  144,  8.  [15?]  (y  Ha-a-ya); 
B.  57,  rev.  14.  20;  [219  ;  rev.  3?]  (y  Ha-ya);  B.  6,  36.  37  (y  Ha-vi)',  and 
B.  31,  1J  (f.flb-a-i). 

Habi,   Ha'ib,   governor   of  Sumuru:  28,  37    (y  ffa-a-bi);   18,    [37.]   39;  cf. 

B.  41,16;  66,9(y#a-#).' 
Hazura  :  see  Hasura. 
Halunni  :  43,  14  (^tH  Ha-ln-un-ni). 
Hawini  (?):  64,  28  (^H  Ha-^-nt). 


150  TELL   EL-AMARNA.    TABLETS. 

Hanigalbi,  Hanagalbi,  Hanigalbat(u)  :  1,  38  (\A  Ha-ni-yal-bi-i)  ;  cf.  also  B. 
144,  10  (\A  Ha-na-gal-bi);  B.  144,  20  (V  Ha-na-gdl-bi)-,  B.  22,  obv.  17; 
24,  obv.  49  (V  //a-m-#a/W);  and  B.  9,  22.  [26?]  (Ha-ni-gdl-ba-tu-u). 


Han(n)i  (cf.  ^ii):  35,  11.  17.  27.  31  (f  Ha-an-t);  cf.  also  B.  21,  25  (f  Ha-ni-i); 

B.   92,   rev.    11.    18    (|  Ha-an-ni)  ;   B.    92,  rev.  29  (?,  Ha-an-ni);   and 
B.  117,  12;  176,  18.  [21?]  (y  Ha-an-ya). 

Hini'anabi:  64,  26  (*-£yy  Hi-ni-a-na-bi). 

Hinatuna  :  72,  32  (^fy  Hi-na-tu-wa  <Jgf);  cf.  B.  8,  17  (^Tf  <^f  Hi-in-jia-tu-ni). 

Hasura,  Hasuri,  Hazor  (?,  -Ti^n,  iol^,  Mo-wp,  Eg.    ' 

*  CK-       N        x 


48>  *;  c/.  B. 

99,  41  (--yy  Ha-zu-ra);  47,  3  [.  21  ?]  (^  Ha-zu-ri  <Jgf). 

Hatib  :  35,  38.  43.  46;  cf.  B.  31,  12.  32;  33,  15.  26;  38,  4.  18.  26.  41  (y  Ha- 

ti-ib). 

Hatti,  Hatta  (cf.  Eg.®^  J^  )  :  35,  49;  36,  [34.]  37.  51;  37,  [9.]  13.  14.  16; 
cf.  B.  30,  rev.  4;  31,  21:  32,  11.  20;  33,  18.  29,  38,  21.  24;    143,  14; 
[163,  11?;]  173,  39  (\A  Ha-at-ti)  ;  5,  49  (ffa-at-ti);  9,  31.  38;    30,  58 
(\A  Ha-at-ti);  46,  7  (?);  cf.  B.  91,  31  f.  (V  Ha-at-ta)-,  cf.  also  B.  159,  obv. 
17  (V  Ha-at-ti  <Jgf);  B.  29,  obv.  8.  rev.  2  (\A  Erf  Ha-at-ti)  ;  B.  76,  59; 
86,  obv.  4  (\A  y«^  Ha-ti);  B.  79,  34  (Ha-ti);  B.  18,  obv.  2  (?,  ....... 

1=H  <|Ef);  B-  61,  71  (\^  ^"o-te);  and  B.  36,  27  (^  Ha-^-  .....  );  and 

(?)  41,  23  (\A  <g[  Ha-at-at 


D 

Kukbi  (?):  73,  15  (^  Ku-uk~bi  <Jgf). 
Kukana  (?)  :  66,  17  (y  Ku-ka(?)-na). 

Kallimma  (?)-Sin,  king  of  Kara-Duniyas  :  1,  1|;  [cf.  B.  1,  3f;  2,  2f]  (y  Ka-al 
(?)-lim-ma~^>^-  Sin). 

Kumiti  (cf.Eg.4^£=<=~?t^4):  18,  46;  43,  38  (^y  Ku-mi-ti};  cf.  also 
B.  61,  75  (>-tn  Ku-mi-ti)',  B.  86,  rev.  13  (^y  <Jg[  Ku-mi~fi);  and  B.  152, 
5  (-tyT  Ku-mi-ti  <Jgf). 

Kuni'a  (?)  :  7,  22  (y  Ku-ni-i-a). 

Kinza:  46,  6;  c/.  B.  163,  10  (V  Ki-in-zd);  cf.  also  B.  160,  12;  229  (=232, 
sub  233),  12.  16  (Vtyy  Ki-in-za). 

Kinahna,  Kinah^i,  Kunahayu,  Kinanat  (?),  Canaan  (?,  fW?,  ?^35,  c/.    Eg. 

]    ):  30,  50  (XA  Ki-nctrafy-na);  2,  19  (Ku-na-fya-ai-u); 

J~\S\  I 


LIST   OF    PROPER    NAMES.  151 

37,  43  (V  Ki-na-na-at);    58,  1  \A  Ki-na-a-ah-[na?])  ;  cf.  also  B.  8,  15. 

17.  [25];  28,  Col.  II,  25;  92,  obv.  41  (XA  Ki-na-ah-hi);  and  (?)  B.  52, 

rev.  13  (V*  Ki-na-nu  [read  aA  ?  ]-m). 
Kuri-galzu,  father  of  Burra-buriyas,  king  of  Kara-Duniyas  :  2,  19;  cf.  B.  6,  43 

(Ku-ri-gdl-zii). 
Kara-Duniyas,  country  in,  or  near,  Babylonia:    2,  3;   cf.  B.  [6,  2;]  144,  21; 

(\A  Ka-ra-du-ni-ya-ds);  [3,  2;]  <?/.  B.  1,  3;  [2,  2;]  7,  3;  [8,  3]  (Y>  Ka-ra- 

-*f   dii-ni-ya-ds);    1,    1    (^   Ka-ra-~  »f-rfM-«i(?)-ya(?)-[a«]  )  ;    1,    53    (\A 

^ar(?)-Hf-(?H«(?)-  ..........  );  4,  3  (  ..........  -[du-ni\-ya-ds)  ;  c/. 

also  B.  164,  7  (V  Ka-ra-du-ni-ds). 

Kara-indas,  king  of  Kara-Duniyas:    3,  8  (Ka-ra-in-da-ds}. 
Kitsi  :  see  Qidsi. 


Liba  :  82,  25  (^  Jf-  Li-i-ba). 

Labay(a),  Labawi  (?),  adversary  of  Abdi-taba(?)  of  Jerusalem:   72,  6.  [25.] 

44;   cf.  (?)  [B.  Ill,  rev.  10]  (f  La-ab-a-ya)  ;  61,  3f;  c/.  B.  100,  30;   105, 

obv.  6;   111,  rev.  6;  115,  11.  17.  29.  38.  41;  154,  6.  14.  [38.];  169,  28  f.; 

199,  9  (|  La-ab-a-^};  cf.  also  B.  100,  33;  103,  30;  112,  2f;   154,  11.  16. 

26.  30.  [35.  53]  (La-ab-a-^}. 

Lapana  :  37,  [35.]  57  (^fy  La-pa-na). 

D 
M(?)ayawi(?):  see  Bayawi. 

Magidda,  Megiddo  p^S  o*  ^  Mane&v,  cf.  Eg.  |\  °—  ""I  fl  1  ,  jkn  ^^ 
r\  -f\  \  '^  wcs  v^_^t  (J  i  r^x^n  Jy^.  <-^=ra 

(j  V^I^N/I  J:  72,  26  (-tn  Ma-gid-da  [<)g[?]);  c/.  also  B.  95,  20  (^yy  Ma- 

^-H[<T?]);  B.  114,  4  (^Yf  ITa-^-rfa  <^f);   B.  113,  11  (^fl  ^/a-H-Ja 
<Jgf);   and  (?)  B.  115,  24.  [42]  ([-t]TT(?)  Ma-gi-id-  .....  ), 

Magdalim  (c/.  ^N^Q,  Eg.^"^^^):64,  26;  73,  14  (^fl  Ma-ag-da- 
lim};  cf.  also  (?)  B.  95,  30  (^  Ma-ay-da^li  <Jg[). 

MHk-m,  son-in-law  of  Tagi:  62,  4f;  63,  4t;  c/.  B.  108,  3f;  109,  4f;  110,  4f; 
112,  29  (|  Mil-MrK);  cf.  also  B.  103,  29  (f  M7-^'->f-);  B.  105,  obv.  5. 
11;  112,  27;  154,  53;  199,  12  (f  Mil-ki-lim);  B.  106,  6.  [26];  149,  16  (f 
Mil-ld-lu);  and  B.  149,  6  (f  3/t—  4-A-t-^). 

Milimtu  :  s«e  Mistu. 
Milkum  :  see  Iskuru. 


152  TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

Mimmuriya,  Nimmuriya,  Nammurya,  Nibmuriya,  Nibmuariya,  Immuriya* 

Amenophis  III.  (fo  ^  ^^1,  yAp,ivw^  'Apevw6):  11,  8.  9.  11.  [12.  15?. 
21.  25.];  cf.  B.  23,  obv.  [9.]  13.  [38?]  (Y  Mi-im-mu-ri-ya);  cf.  also  B.  23, 
obv.  14.  20  (Y  Mi-im-mu-u-ri-ya)',—IO,  It;  c/.  B.  21,  1$;  26,  Col.  IV,  45. 
47  (Y  Ni-im-mu-ri-ya);    cf.  also  B.  24,  obv.  6.  8.  11.  12.  16.  18.  21.  [24.] 
25.  28.  31.  35.  36.  [37.]  47.  48  bis-  50.  [51.]  53.  [55.]  61.  62.  66.  [68?.  73. 
75;  rev.  10.  42.?];  [27,  Col.  I,  Ifl  (Y  Ni-im-mu-u-ri-ya);  B.  27,  Col.  I,  92 
(Y  Ni-im-mu-u-ri-i-ds);  B.  2,  Ij  (Y  Ni-mu--ri-ya}-,  B.  10,  If  (Y  Ni-mu-^- 
ri-ya);  B.   1,    1}   ([Y  JWw?-*-^-'-^-  ri-ya);—  36,   1+;  [37,  1J]  (Y  JVawi- 
mur-ya);  —  1,  2f  (Y  Ni-ib-mu-a-ri-a)  ;  9,  1  t  (J  Ni-ib-mu-a-ri-ya)  ;  c/.  B.  22, 
obv.   It    (  ..........  -mu-u-a-ri-ya)  ;  —  8,    1|    (  .....  ^  im-mu-ri-ya)  ; 

c/.  also  B.  27,  Col.  Ill,  104  (Y  Im-mu-u-ri-yd);  B.  27,  Col.  Ill,  106 
(Y  Im-mu-u-ri-ds  )  ;  B.  27,  Col.  IV,  128  (Y  Im-mu-u-ri-i^^-}  \  and  B.  28, 
Col.  I,  It  (  ..........  -ri-a). 


Mani,  messenger  of  Amenophis  III.  (cf.  Eg.  CIS  ft   or  di^  @  ()()):  8,  17.  21; 

*  °         /WW\A     1  AAV/VA  11  ' 

11,  15;  c/B.21,  24;  22,  obv.  8.  14.  18.  19.  23;  rev.  23  Ms-  25;  23,  obv. 
[7.]  13;  24,  obv.  70.  78.  86.  89;  rev.  73.  [80?];  27,  Col.  I,  61.  79; 
Col.  II,  13.  19.  126;  Col.  IV,  26.  35.  [62?]  (Y  Ma-m-i};  cf.  also  B.  27, 
Col.  I,  67;  Col.  II,  7.  67.  96.  101.  105.  110.  121;  Col.  IV,  52.  54.  55. 
57  (Yifa-m-m);  B.  27,  Col.  II,  16.  112;  Col.  IV,  20.  21.  27.  85 
ni-is);  and  (?)  B.  92,  rev.  27  (Y  ^t-an-yd). 


Manahbirya  (cf.   Eg.  [oP®]  or  [0  B  f§  |]),    king    of  Egypt:  41,   8 
(Y  Ma-na-ah-bi-ir-yd)\  cf.  B.  30,  obv.  4  (Y  Ma-na-ah-li-ya). 


Mis(i)ri(m),  Egypt  (D^JfP,  P^oen.  D^JJD,  ^^,  ^»>^,  Mvapa):  5,  1.  9.  [28.] 
31;  6,  2;  [7,  1?];  17,  33;  20,  18;  28,  69;  43,  25;  44,  18;  57,  26;  cf.  B.  9, 
20.  [23];  11,  1;  12,  1;  [13,  1;]  15,  1;    30,  obv.  2.  4;   rev.  6;  39,  20.  22. 
27.  [32];   42,  67;    45,   13.  49.  54;    47,   37;  51,  obv.  21;   edge  1;    52, 
rev.  12.  15;  57,  obv.  20;  95,  31;  [177,17?;]  183,  8;  184,  17;  218  (  =  225), 
obv.  6  (^  M-is-ri);  1,  [52.]  68;  2,  [1]  ;  8,  1;  [9,  1;]  10,  1.  14;  11,  1.  2  ; 
58,  4.  8.  10;    cf.  B.  [1,  1?;]  2,  1;  [3,  6;]  6,  1;  [7,  1?;]  8,  2;  21,  2;  22, 
obv.  9.  16.  17;  rev.  14;  23,  obv.  [1.]  24;  [24,  rev.  80;]  26,  Col.  IV,  45. 
47  (V  MW*-n-i);  2,  26  (Mi-i?-ri-i)  1,  3  [.51];  [cf.  B.  18,  obv.  3]  (\*  Mi- 
i?-ri-i  <JK);  37,   15;  41,  12;  cf.  B.  [102,  31;]  196,  obv.  1;  197,  4;  199, 
21  (^  Mi-i?-ri  <Jgf);  8,  19  (V  Mi-is-ri-i-im-mi)',  41,  1.  10.  30.  43  (\A  <Jgf 
Mi-i?-ri}',   41,    18    (\A   <Jgf   Mi-is-ri   <Jgf);  3,   1    (\A  Mi-  ..........  ); 

cf.  also  B.  22,  rev.  11.  18  (\A  Mi-is-ri-im};  B.  9,  2;  10,  1  (\^  Mi-is-  sa-ri)  ; 


LIST    OF    PROPER   NAMES.  153 

B.  27,  Col.  I,  93  (V  M-zi-ir-ri);  B.  27,  Col.  Ill,  105  (V  Mi-iz-zi-ir-ri)-, 
B.  29,  obv.  1  (^  [HIT  M-j>-n-[<]);  B.  58,  68.  93  (\A  y«*  M-is-ri); 
and  B.  71,  28  (\A  ^  Mi-is-ri-i). 

Miq(?)id  :  82,  23  (-*f  Mi-ki-id). 
Marduk  :  64,  20  (->f  C^D- 

Muru(?)hazi  (?)  :  50,  25  (^  J/u-  .....  -ha-zi);  cf.  (?)  B.  173,  24  (--ft  .....  - 
rM-Ai-2i). 

Mistu  (?,  or  Milimtu?)  :  64,  25  (-^ 
Mutabriq(?)a  :  82,  20  («f  Mu-ta-ab-ri-ga). 
Mut(u)-Adda:  64,  2f.  5  (f  J/i<-*Y  -*f  ^Hf 


J\  /|  A(VW>A        J^          /I 

Mitani,  district  in  Mesopotamia  (c/.  Eg.  ^\  ,         '  "^K   t^a):8,  4; 

~  > 


[9,  3?]  (V  Mi-i-it-ta-an-ni);  10,  4  (Mi-i-ta-an-ni);  21,  12;  44,  10; 
cf.  B.  52,  obv.  6;  53,  20;  61,  70;  74,  14  (V  M-te-na);  cf.  also  B.  27, 
Col.  Ill,  104  (\A  Mi-i-it-ta-a-an-ni);  B.  [24,  rev.  77?;]  26,  Col.  IV,  44 
(Mi-i-ta-a-an-ni);  B.  173,  37  (\A  Mi-it-ta-an^na);  B.  79,  36  (V  Mi-it- 
ta-ni);  B.  21,  6  (\A  M-to-arc-m) ;  B.  60,  21  (\A  Mi-ta-ni);  B.  214,  5  (V 
Mi-ta-an);  and  B.  22,  obv.  3;  25,  Col.  IV,  67  (V  M4-. ). 


Ni  (cf.    Eg.     xx         ^:  37'  42  (^  ^«')J  41»  28  K 

15  (V  XI). 
Nibmu(a)riya  :  see  Mimmuriya. 

Nuhassi,  (c/.(?)  Eg.      1    fl^S%v  ^t^a,  (].  -  (j  ^K  S  ^  ^^  )  =    35,36; 
/WWVA^  l  _ZT         rr^    i  i  —  u.  ' 

36,  21;  37,  41;  cf.  B.  30,  obv.  5;  31,  21;  32,  20;  33,  38;  [34  a,  26;] 
38,  22  ;  39,  16.  38  ;  143,  27  (\A 


Namyawi(P)za:  43,    17;  cf.  B.  95,  27;  96,   4|;  142,   obv.  6;  rev.  2.  9: 
edge  2;  [154,  24]  (f  Nam-ya-*^-za};  30,  62;  cf.  [B.  86,  rev.  10]  (f  Nam- 

ya-^-zi). 

Nammnrya,  Nimmuriya  :  see  Mimmuriya. 

Namtara:  82,  7.  10  (Nam-ta-a-ra)  ;  82,  27  (>-»f  (Nam-ta-ra). 

Nina,  Nineveh  (my*?,  Ntvo*)  :  10,  13  (-j:|y  .Yi-t-na-a)  ;  <?/.  also  B.  27,  Col.  Ill, 
98  (^yy  .Vi-t-iin-a). 

X 


154  TELL   EL-AMARNA   TABLETS. 


Naphur(a)riya,  Niphuririya,  Amenophis  IV.  (Eg.    oJ^jO:  11,   38. 


[42.  46.]  51;   ef.  B,  23,  obv.  39  (f  Na-ap-hur-ri-ya}-,  3,  1|  (Na  (?)-op  (?)- 
hu(?)-ra-ri-ya)  ;  2,  1J  (Ni-ip-hu-ur-ri-ri-ya)  ;  c/.  also  B.  24,  obv.  [61?  63? 
65?]  67.  76  (f  Nap-hur-u^ri-yaY,  B.  6,  1J  (f  Na-ap-hu-ru-^ri-a)  ;  B.  8,  1} 
(Na-ap-hii-^u-ri-&jg)  ;   B.    10,    1}    (j   Na-ap-hu-ri-i-  .....  )  ;  and  B.  7 
1}  (  ..........  -ru-ri-ya). 

Nirgal  :  5,  13,  37  ;  82,  33,  37  (-*f  <£fY). 


D 

Sazu(?)  :  28,  49  ;  cf.  B.  99,  11.  30  (^  Sa-su). 
Sarti(?)  :  14,  29  ( 


2 
Pa'  .........  :  18,  35  (f  Pa-'-  ...........  ). 

Pu-Adda,  of  the  city  of  Urza:  55,  3f.   18;  56,  3f;  cf.  B.  153,  3f  (Y  Pu- 

-4-  4-TT)- 

Puzruna  :  see  Buzruna. 

Pahamnata  :  24,  31  ;  [cf.  B.  80,  22]  (J  Pa-ha-am-na-ta)  ;  c/.  also  (?)  B.  97, 
10.  32  (Y  Pa-ha-na-ti). 

P(?)ihura  :  18,  44  ;  20,  13.  34  (Y  Bi-hu-ra)  ;  cf.  (?)  B.  47,  31  (Pa-hu-ra)  ; 
B.  103,  45  (Y  Pa-u-ru};  B.  142,  obv.  17  (Y  Pu-hu-ri)-,  B.  142,  obv.  18 
(Pu-hu-ru)  ;  and  B.  105,  rev.  4  (Y  Pu-u-ru). 


Sidana  :  82,  23  (^*f  Si-i-da-na). 

Sidfina,  Sidon  (ttTS,   Pboen.  m  StSwi/,  Eg.  ^^^^    ]     ):  13,    13 

\\  '    (2      M»,  r^"N3  / 

28,  57  ;  29,  67  ;  [31,  58  ;  44,  24  ;]  cf.  B.  48,  71  ;  54,  22  ;  99,  25  ;  [162, 
14]  (--YT  Zi-du-nd)  ;  30,  11  ;  cf.  B.  90,  5.  11  (^YT  Zi-du-na  <Jgf)  ; 
cf.  also  B.  99,  40  (>£fl  Zi-du-nu)-,  B.  92,  obv.  12  (^Yf  Zi-tu-na)  ;  and 
B.  54,  19  ("-^YT  Zi-na;  du  omitted  by  the  scribe). 

Suharti,   daughter  of  Kallimma  (?)-Sin  of  Kara-Duniyas  :  1,  80.  97  (Zu-fca- 
ar-ti)  ;  cf.  also  B.  1,  7  (-^-  Sn-ha-ar-ti). 


LIST    OF   PROPER    NAMES. 


155 


Siimura,  Zemar  (  J^,    3Y/iupa  ^.ifivpa  ^i/jivpos  ;  cf.  "H22;  Eg.  I  fk  '     V 

^  (Hi  _S*^  <zr>  fc^4  / 

13,  11.  28.  37.  40;  14,  29;  15,  41  ;  18,  40;  21,  35;  28,  39.  67;  cf.  B.  41, 

15.  34;  42,  47.  63;  45,  11.  [41.]  46;  48,  36.  52;  51,  obv.  7.  8.  10.  30; 
edge  4;  [52,  rev.  30?;]  56,  [6?.]  11;  57,  rev.  15.  19.  22;  60,  15.  33. 
45;  61,  11.  [18.]  24;  [62,  19;]  66,  5;  69,  16.  [22];  72,  16;  74,  35;  77, 
11.  14.  27.  35.  [39.]  46;  83,  34;  89,  48;  91,  15.  18;  128,  4  (--ft 
Su-mu-ra);  13,  13;  31,  57;  cf.  B.  34  a,  28;  [58,  33.  35;]  97,  23;  128, 
19.  21  (-tTT  Su-murri);  41,  34;  cf.  B.  82,  9.  11  ;  158,  [23?.]  37.  [51?;  186, 
obv.  4]  (--y|  Su-mu-ri  <Jg[)  ;  24,  4  (^JT  <Jgf  Su-mu-ri)  ;  24,  34  (^TT  Su- 
mur-ri);  45,  36  f  .  ;  cf.  B.  35,  37.  40;  36,  12  (^TT  Surmu-ru)-,  23,  15; 
cf.  B.  43,  8.  11.  16.  [21];  73,  12;  80,  20;  184,  6  (*-tf\  Su-mu-ur); 
35,  35  ;  cf.  B.  97,  27  (ȣYT  Su-mur)  :  cf.  also  B.  60,  36.  39  (Su-mu-ra)  ; 
B.  34  a,  29  (-Efy  Zii-wi  «-»•£);  and  B.  80,  16.  24;  186,  obv.  10  (-STT 
Su-mu-ur  E. 


1 


Sarki-sabtat  (?)  :  64,  27  (^H  Sa-ar-M-sa-al-ta-ai). 

Surri,  Tyre  (-^  ^2»  Phoen.  *\2,  .^\,  >o\,  Tipos,  Eg.    1 

^*  O  (ill 

"Double  Tyre"  1  i  "^  ^  J^  )  :  [21,  l-?  ?;]  28,  10.  [41?.]  48. 
63.  65;  29,  62;  31,  31.  51  [cf.  B.  49,  obv.  17.  22;  rev.  16.  20]  (^flf 
Sur~ri)-t  49,  4  (- 


Qidsi  (t/.  trip,  *ȣ,  KdS&r,?  KdSrjs,  Eg.  d  c  ^    1    V  30,  60  (-tfy  Ki-id-si)  ; 

•  1|  i    \\    i  r^/^/i  / 

c/.  B.  142,  obv.  11  (V  Gi-id-si)  ;  and  B.  142,  rev.  12  (V  Qid(?)-si). 
Qatna    (cf.   }*&&,  Xva}  Kava):  36,  9  (*£fl  Qat-na  <Jg[)  ;  36,  [38]  43;  37, 

* 

64.  70  (-tyy  Qa#-wa). 
Qannisat  (?)  :  2,  20  (  Qa-an-««-  V). 


Ra 


(?)  :  45,  2  t 


Ri'anapa  (cf.   Eg. 


)• 


:  56,  13;   cf.  B.  122,   17  (|  Ri-a-na-pa). 


Rib(?)-Adda,  governor  of  Byblos  :  12,  It  ;  [13,  If  ;]  15,  2t  (T  Ri-ib-ad-da)  ; 
14,  [If.]  40;  [17,  If];  18,  2f;  19,  2f  ;  20,  It;  21,  2f;  23,  3f;  25,  3f; 
27,  21;  c/.  B.  [41,  It;  42,  It;]  43,  It-  14.  31;  44,  obv.  [If.]  19  ;  [rev. 
5;  45,  It;]  46,  4f;  [47,  It;]  48,  [2t]  24;  [49,  obv.  It;  51.  obv.  It; 

x  2 


156  TELL    EL-AMARNA    TABLETS. 

52,  obv.  If;]  53,  3f;  [55,  2f;  57,  obv.  If;]  59,  obv.  [2f.]  24;  60,  3f  ; 
62,  2|.  [6.18;]  63,  2f;  [64a,  If;]  72,  2f;  [74,  If;  75,  If;]  77,  2f; 
[79,  l.f  17?;  8L  2f  ;]  82,  If;  [84,  If;  85,  2f]  (f  Ri-ib-^  ^HfT)  5 
16,  2f;  22,  3f;  c/".  B.  70,  2f  (Ri-ib-^  ^Hff)  5  c/.  also  B.  [50,  obv. 
If;  rev.  7;]  58,  67  Of  Ri-ib-ad-di)  ;  B.  58,  It;  73,  3t  )Ri-ib-ad-dt)  ; 
B.  76,  It  (T  Ri-ib-id-di)  ;  B.  71,  It  (Y  Ri-ib-ad-  .....  )  ;  B.  80,  It  (  .....  - 
ib-ha-ad-  .....  )  ;  and  B.  86,  obv.  It  (  .....  -i\b  (?)-ad-  .....  )  . 

Rabisa  :  82,  21  (^>f-  Ra-a-bi-i-sa). 

Ruhiz(z)i:  37,  36  (^  Ru-U-iz-zi);  37,  56  (^\  Ru-M-zi). 

Ramman  :  28,  7  ;  29,  14  (^f-  <&$]). 

Rip-Adda  :  see  Rib-Adda. 

Riqa,  envoy  of  Kallimma(?)-Sin  :  1,  18  (Ri-i-qa)  ;  1,  96  (Ri-ka). 


Su'ardata:  67,  2f;  68,  3f;  69,  4f;  c/.  B.  [100,  4f;]  101,  obv.  3f;  rev.  16; 
[107,  4f;]  HO,  12;  190,  5f  (I  $u-*]~-  ar-da-ta)  ;  c/.  also  B.  106,  6.  [26] 
(|  Sii-ar-da-turn). 

Sa'(?)sihasi  (?)  :  55,  17  tfSd-(?)-si-ha-si  .....  ). 

Subandi:  38,  4f;  39,  4f;  [40,  3f;]  cf.  B.  116,  4f;  [117,  3f;]  120,  4f  (I  Si'i-ba- 
an-dt);  cf.  also  (?)  B.  219,  obv.  2f  (M^~ba-^^)-di)- 

Sib(?)ti-Adda:  65,  3f  (I  Si-ib-fi-^  ^-yi);  cf.  B.  200,  4f  (I  ^^t^iHKi) 

and  also  (?)  B.  157,  3  f  (?§  Si-ib-tu-.  ____  ?). 
Sigata:  12,  24;  cf.  B.  60,  12.  41;  72,  25  f.  30;  74,  18  (^ft  Si-ga-ta)',  cf.  also 

B.  128,  11.  17  O-tTT  ^o-«i  <XU). 
Saddu  (?)  :  43,  29  (^  Sd-ad-du). 

Salmayati  (?)  :  31,  15.  [22.]  32.  40  (f  -Sa/-wm^-  a-ti);  31,  8  ($al-ma-ya-a-ti)  ; 
31,  52  (|  Sal-^na-ya-[a-ti  ?]). 

Sum-Addu:    66,    3f    (T    ^m-arf-[rf«?]);    c/.   B.    8,    18.  35  (J  A§M-Mm-a£f-rfa)  ; 

also(?)  B.  131,  3t  (y  Sd-mu-^  ^Hff);  and  (?)  B.  204,  2t  (f  V~»»«  ^ 

.........  );  and  (?)  B.  183,  It  (y  Su->,iu-ha-  .....  ). 

feamas:  20,  8  ;  25,  2.  4;  28,  6.  83;  29,  6.  8.  43.  52.  58  ;  31,  6.  37  ;  32,  3  ; 

35,  33;  36,  1.  47.  50.  53.  57.  60;  37,  1  ;  38,  2.  8.  15;  39,  2.   9;  40, 

[2.]  7.  27  ;  42,  7  ;  45,  4  ;  47,  9  ;  49,  2.  8.  16  ;  50,  2.  10  ;  52,  2.  14.  21. 

22;  53,2.12.20.22.23;  54,  2.  11.  19;  56,  2.  9.  15.  [18];  59,  2. 

69,  10.  [14]  ;  74,  2  ;  75,  6  ;  78,  6  (~f  4f). 
Sindi-sugab,  envoy  of  Burra-buriyus  :  3,  34.  45  (y  Si-in-di-su-ga-ab). 


LIST   OF   PROPER   NAMES.  157 


f    /WAAAA          ««  yy  ^        \ 

Sanhar,  a  country  near  the  land  of  Hatti  (cf.  Eg.  W  (  (  (  S  ^<p*  JU  j  : 

5,  49  (Sd-an-ha-ar). 
Sanku  (?)  :  42,  26  ( 
Satiwi  (?)  :  77,  3f 
Sutti:  4,  19  (y  Su-ut-ti)',  cf.  (?)  B.  104,  [19.]  22  Of  &<-u-to). 


n 

Ta'  ..........  ,  city  near  Beyrut  :  59,  14  (--ft  Ta--  ..........  );  c/.  (?) 

B.  58,  80  (--yyi  Ta-£Z^-da  <Jgf). 
Ti'uwatti(?)  :  37,  35.  57  (y  Ti-d(?)-*]~(?)~a'-tC). 


Tubuliya(?)  (cf.  (?)  Eg.  .S^         )  13,  12  (-tyy  Tu(?)-Mi-ya). 


Tagi,  father-in-law  of  Milk-ili :    70,  2 f;   cf.  B.  105,  obv.  11;  149,  8;  199,  (5 

(y  Ta-gi);  cf.  also  B.  156,  4f  (y  Ta-a-[gi]). 

Tunip,  Eg.  ^^"^Q^):  41,  5;  cf.  B.  31,  25  (-tTT  Du-ni-ip)-,  41,  2.  6. 
10.  39  (--yy  Dwi-ip  <Jgf);  35,  12.  34  (^Tf  Tu-nwp);  cf.  also  B.  [32, 
23;]  33,  39.  41  (-Jiffi  Tun-ni-ip). 

Tun(?)nipipri :  9,  47  (y  Tun(?)-ni-ip-ip-ri). 

Tissub(?)-bili :  8,  15.  75  (->f-  Tissub(?)-bi-i-li) ;  9,  33  Hf-  Tissub(?)-bi-li). 

Tusratta,  king  of  Mitani,  contemporary  with  Amenophis  III. :  8,  3f  (Y  7u- 
us-rat-ta);  9,  3f  (y  Tu-is-i-rat-ta);  10,  4f;  [11,  2f;]  c/:  B.  21,  5f;  [22, 
obv.  3f;  23,  obv.  2f;]  27,  [CoL  I,  3f;]  Col.  Ill,  103.  107;  [Col.  IV,  127] 

(y  Du-us-rat-ta);  cf.  also  B.  25,  Col.  IV,  67  ( -us-rat-ta);  and  B.  26, 

Col.  IV,  44  (y  Du-is^rat-td). 

Tatu(m)-Mpa,  daughter  of  Tusratta,  wife  of  Ainenophis  III. :  10,  7  ;  11,  4 
(•£>•  Ta-a-tum-ht-pa);  cf.  also  B.  23,  obv.  20  (-£>-  Da-a-du-M-i-pa) ;  B.  23, 
rev.  55  (^  Ta-a-tum-hi-i-pa)-,  B.  24,  obv.  3.  35  [*>»];  27,  Col.  Ill,  103; 
Col.  IV,  89  (^  Ta-a-dwhi-i-pa)',  B.  24,  obv.  32  (^  Ta-du-hi-pa);  and 
B.  26,  Col.  IV,  46  (^  Ta-tum-hi-pa\ 


LIST  OF   PLATES. 


Plate. 

Registration 
Number. 

No. 

Plate. 

Registration 
Number. 

No. 

1. 

BU.   88-10-13, 

1       .. 

..      71 

11.      BU. 

88-10-13, 

51    .. 

..     29 

55 

„      88-10-13, 

4       .. 

..     74 

12.                5, 

88-10-13, 

52    .. 

..     39 

2. 

„      88-10-13, 

7      .. 

..     27 

55                     55 

88-10-13, 

54    .. 

..     C8 

55 

„      88-10-13, 

8       .. 

.,      62 

13.     „ 

88-10-13, 

56    .. 

..     30 

3. 

„      88-10-13, 

9       .. 

..     72 

55                    »1 

88-10-13, 

58    .. 

..     14 

„ 

„      88-10-13, 

11      .. 

..     43 

14.     „ 

88-10-13, 

59    .. 

..      52 

4. 

„      88-10-13, 

12     .. 

..     45 

5»                     55 

88-10-13, 

60    .. 

..     28 

„ 

„      88-10-13, 

13     .. 

..     42 

15.     „ 

88-10-13, 

61     .. 

.  .      6»> 

5. 

„      88-10-13, 

15     .. 

..     64 

55                     55 

88-10-13, 

62    .. 

..      34 

„ 

„      88-10-13, 

16     .. 

..     51 

15                     55 

88-10-13.. 

64    .. 

..     58 

55 

„      88-10-13, 

19     .. 

..     69 

16.     ,, 

88-10-13, 

65    .. 

..     48 

6. 

„      88-10-13, 

20    .. 

..     32 

15                     „ 

88-10-13, 

66    .. 

..     75 

„ 

„      88-10-13, 

23    .. 

..     76 

17.     i, 

88-10-13, 

69    .. 

..     82 

5* 

„      88-10-13, 

30    .. 

..     79 

18-19.  „ 

88-10-13, 

70    .. 

8 

., 

„      88-10-13, 

31     .. 

..     22 

20.     „ 

88-10-13, 

72    .. 

..      12 

7. 

„      88-10-13, 

34    .. 

..     60 

55                     55 

88-10-13, 

73    .. 

..     16 

55 

„      88-10-13, 

35     .. 

..     78 

21.     „ 

88-10-13, 

74    .. 

..     61 

8. 

„      88-10-13, 

37    .. 

5 

5J                     55 

88-10-13, 

75    .. 

..      54 

9. 

„      88-10-13, 

39    .. 

..      11 

Ij'^J.               55 

88-10-13, 

76    .. 

..      35 

10. 

„      88-10-13, 

44    .. 

..     19 

<UO«              55 

88-10-13, 

78    .. 

..      10 

n 

„      88-10-13, 

46     .. 

..       3 

51                     55 

88-10-13, 

80    .. 

..     26 

11. 

„      88-10-13, 

49     .. 

..     33 

24.     „ 

88-10-13, 

81     .. 

..       2 

OBVER  5  E 


REVERSE 


BRITISH      MUSEUM     B.  88-10-13.  I. 


OBVER  SE 


REVERSE 


+* 


RDITICU          M  I  I    C    C    I  I   M       r> 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


Hate  2. 


BRITISH    MUSEUM.    B.  88-10-13.  7. 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM.    B.  88-10-13.  8. 


Plate 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM.    B.  88.10.13.  9. 


0  BVERSE 


-  REVERSE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM.    B.  88.10.13.  n. 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM.     B.  88-io:!3. 12. 


MUSEUM.      B.  88-10-13.  13. 


^    .    f 


'.      B.  88-10.    ; 

REVERSE 
_JX    V  -•**'* 


VI  USED  M.      B.  88JOJ3,  16. 

REV-ERS  E 


- 

^ 


•'USEUM.      B.8«  5.  19. 


OBV  ER  5E 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE  -  BLANK 

BRITISH     MUSEUM    888-10-13.20. 

OBVERSE 


REVERSE  -  5_ANK 

BRITISH      MUSEUM    8.88-10-13.23 

REVERSE 


BRITISH.    MUSEUM.   B88-m-!3.  30 


REVERSE 


-  v*  ,-  Y    *;    v 


Plate 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


88 


"^Ed 

m 


'  B.  88- 10. 13. 34. 


0  BVERS 


P  c  \/  p  p  c  r 


BRITISH    MUSEUM.     B.  88.  (0. 13.35. 


Plate  9 


K  tV  t  I 


Plate  1C 


BRITISH    MUSEUM.    B.  88  10  13  44 

OBVERSE  REVERSE 

.«.     .      --•- 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM.     B.  88-10-13.  49. 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM.     B   88-10-13,51 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


/.   B.  88.10. 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM,     a.  88.IOJ3. 


OBVERS  E 


REVER  S  E 


BRITISH      MUSEUM.    B.  88-10-13.  56. 


OBVERSE 


REVERS  E 


r-£> 


BRITISH      MU'SEUM.    B.  88-10-13.  58. 


S  E 


,  t|r^/r  xj 


T^f*   *"*" 


as 

"Vl3: 


ifiC 


-*  & 

m     *± 


B.  88-10-13.  59. 


REVERS  E 


BRITISH    MUST  3.60. 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM,    a.  88-10-13.  6i. 


OBVERS  E 


OBVERSE 


(Reverse  effaced.) 

BRITISH    ;/USEUM.    B.  88-10-13. 62 


REVERSE 


TiSH    MUSEUM.    B.  88-ic-i3. 64. 


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REVERSE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM      B  88_io_i3.7C. 


Plate  20 


0  BVE  RS  E 


REVERSE 


BRITISH     MUSEUM     a  88-10-13.  72. 


OBVERSE 


BRITISH     MUSEUM    B  88-10-13.  73 


Plate  21 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM  .  B.88-IO-I3.74. 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


BRITISH    MUSEUM.    B  88-10-13.75 


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OBVERSE 


OBVERSE 


REVERSE 


BR!T 


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BIND;; 


OCT  £0108 


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